This is the second of three lessons covering fundamental expressions. In this section, you'll learn greetings and also sendings for various instances and also numerous other crucial expressions. Similar to the last section, you need to learn understand just how to use Japanese pronunciation, however no grammar knowledge is necessary.
You are watching: Why is konnichiwa spelled with a ha
Hello and Goodbye
Like the majority of languages, Japanese has several greetings for various times of the day.
|おはようございます。||Ohayou gozaimasu.||exp. "Good morning." (formal)|
|おはよう。||Ohayou.||exp. "Good morning." (informal)|
|こんにちは。||Konnichiwa.||exp. "Hello"/"Good afternoon."|
|こんばんは。||Konbanwa.||exp. "Good evening."|
Ohayou gozaimasu literally means "It's early". Ohayou is an obscure inflection of the adjective "hayai" (early) and gozaimasu is the honorific equialent of "desu", meaning "to be".
Read even more aboutthe copula "desu"
The shorter variation, "ohayou", is informal. Either have the right to be supplied until around 11:00 in the morning, at which suggest "konnichiwa" is the proper greeting.
Konnichiwa is spelled ko-n-ni-chi-HA in Hiragana. "Konnichi" suggests "today" based on its parts, but is never before supplied as an independent word. (The normal word for "today" is kyou.)
The 'wa' right here is the topic marker "wa", a particle (grammar word) always spelled は 'ha' for historic factors. This is the exact same wa as in the sentence "Watashi wa
Konbanwa is developed similarly tokonnichiwa, with the spelling ko-n-ba-n-HA, however this time "konban" (this evening) is also a normal word.
Neither konnichiwanor konbanwahashas a more or much less polite version, however there are numerous various other greetings that may be even more correct for a specific case, some of which you'll learn listed below.
Now, right here are some of the most common sendings.
|（じゃ、）また（ね）。||(Ja,) mata (ne).||exp. "See you later." (informal)|
|（じゃ、）また あとで。||(Ja,) mata atode.||exp. "See you later." (informal)|
|じゃあ、ね。||Jaa, ne.||exp. "See you later on." (informal)|
|おやすみなさい。||O-yasumi nasai.||exp. "Good night." (formal)|
|おやすみ。||O-yasumi.||exp. "Good night." (informal)|
I have no doubt you've heard sayounara prior to, but for the love of all things great in this civilization, please don't pronounce it "sai-uh-nar-uh" choose the cluemuch less Americans execute. If you learned your Japanese pronunciation prefer you were supposed to, then you have to be keeping the consonants with the vowels that follow: sa-yo-o-na-ra, with a lengthy 'yo' (though the 'yo' is sometimes shortened).
Like konnichiwa and konbanwa, sayounara doesn't have any variants for different levels of politeness–rather, entirely various expressions are used. We'll cover a few such expressions listed below.
Japanese does, but, have a range of methods to say the indistinguishable of "See you later". Many of these are developed from some combination of a few parts:ja… (well…), mata (again), atode (later), and ne (right?). Any of the versions I've provided over would be acceptable in informal speech, and generally better than sayounara if you'll be seeing the perboy aget shortly.
O-yasumi nasai is literally a polite command to remainder (yasumi comes from the verb "yasumu"/to rest), yet is supplied the very same means as the English "great night". Like with ohayou gozaimasu, dropping the "nasai" renders this expression informal.
Note: the "o" in ohayou and o-yasumi nasai is the honorific prefix "o". You'll likewise view it in numerous more expressions listed below.
Specialized Greetings and Sendings
The following couple sets of expressions are not usually presented till later on in many textpublications, but considering that there's no specific reason why you shouldn't have the ability to understand also them, I'm including them on this web page to store comparable content grouped together. Don't feel obligated to memorize these ones automatically.
The initially set of specialized greetings are those provided when leaving and returning home.
|いってきます。||Ittekimasu.||exp. "I'm leaving."|
|ただいま。||Tadaima.||exp. "I'm ago."|
|おかえり（なさい）。||O-kaeri (nasai).||exp. "Welcome earlier."|
These are mostly offered as follows:
|When someone leaves…|
|When someone returns…|
|Human being returning:||「ただいま。」||"Tadaima."|
Ittekimasu literally means "I'll go and come back" while Itterasshai (pay attention to the two doubled consonants) means "Please go and come back". Tadaima is short forTadaima kaerimashita, meaning "I've just come back", ando-kaeri nasai is a kind of command favor "please come in" (from kaeru "to return"). The just one of these 4 through 2 commonly offered versions iso-kaeri nasai, and also as with o-yasumi nasai, dropping the "nasai" makes it less formal.
Interestingly, this exchange is likewise supplied in various other scenarios wbelow one perchild leaves a team of people with the intention of returning. If you think around the word roots offered (go, come, return) this renders perfect sense.
Another pair of expressions that substitute for konnichiwa and so on are the following:
|しつれいします。||Shitsurei shimasu.||exp. "Sorry to bother you."|
|しつれいしました。||Shitsurei shimashita.||exp. "Sorry to have actually bothered you."|
Shitsurei shimasu literally implies "I'm going to execute a rude point." It has assorted offers, and one of these is as soon as entering a room to accomplish someamong a greater rank, for instance a student coming to see a teacher. The perkid of greater rank can greet their visitor in various means depending on the exact relationship. The past tense of the very same expression,shitsurei shimashita, suggests something like "I've done a rude thing", and also is supplied as soon as leaving. Aacquire, the greater rank perboy could say somepoint significantly less formal in return.
Confusingly,shitsurei shimasu is also provided to excusage oneself. One instance of this use is as soon as leaving work-related previously than one's coworkers.
|おさきに しつれいします。||O-saki ni shitsurei shimasu.||exp. "Sorry for leaving prior to you." (formal)|
|おさきに。||O-saki ni.||exp. "Sorry for leaving prior to you." (informal)|
O-saki ni suggests "before". The short form of the expression is provided in much less formal situations. Tbelow is also a matching response for each.
|おつかれさまでした。||O-tsukare-sama deshita.||exp. "Thank you for your hard job-related." (formal)|
|おつかれさま。||O-tsukare-sama.||exp. "Thank you for your hard job-related." (informal)|
The "tsukare" in these expressions means "come to be tired", and also the literal interpretation of the totality point is something like "You have to be tired". These expressions deserve to also be provided without having been prompted by o-saki ni, whether the leaving perchild literally looks exhausted or simply assuming they've been working hard at anything.
Note: the "sama" in "o-tsukare-sama" is not connected the name suffix"sama".
Follow-ups for Greetings
As we end up with greetings, let's looks at a couple more expressions that typically follow initial greetings.
|おげんきですか。||O-genki desu ka?||exp. "Are you well?|
|はい、（おかげさまで）げんきです。||Hai, (o-kage-sama de) genki desu.||exp. "Yes, I'm fine, many thanks."|
|いいおてんきですね。||Ii o-tenki desu ne?||exp. "Nice weather, isn't it?"|
|そうですね。||Sou desu ne.||exp. "It is, isn't it?"|
Note: "ka" is the question particle and "ne" expects the listener's agreement. You deserve to read even more about these in Questions and Negation and also The Sentence Ending Ppost "Yo" and "Ne".
The first question is the identical of "How are you?" in English ("Genki" implies "great health"). The optional o-kage-sama de in the response indicates something prefer "many thanks to you (for asking)", and also renders it even more polite.
In practice, Japanese people don't mostly ask if someone is well unmuch less they haven't watched eachother for a while or they're genuinely came to. Instead, you're even more likely to enrespond to some type of filler. In the instance of the second question, a common one, "ii" indicates good and also "tenki" suggests weather. Whether or you not you actually think the weather is nice or not isn't the allude. Just agree with them and also move on.
Other Typical Expressions
The remainder of the expressions in this area have actually no particular template, however are straightforward to use and beneficial for beginners.
|（どうも）ありがとう（ございます）。||(Doumo) arigatou (gozaimasu).||exp. "Thank you (exceptionally much)."|
|（どうも）すみません。||(Doumo) sumimasen.||exp. "Excusage me."/"I'm sorry."|
|しつれいします。||Shitsurei shimasu.||exp. "Excusage me."/"I'm sorry."|
|ごめん（なさい）。||Gomen nasai.||exp. "I'm sorry."|
|いらっしゃいませ。||Irrasshaimase.||exp. "Welcome. Come in."|
|いただきます。||Itadakimasu.||exp. "I get."|
|ごちそうさま（でした）。||Gochisou-sama (deshita).||exp. "It was quite a feastern."|
You more than likely currently recognize arigatou, but note the lengthy "o" at the end. Comparable to ohayou, it's an obscure inflection of "arigatai", meaning "grateful". The "doumo" part ofdoumo arigatou gozaimasu carries the literal meaning of "very" while the "gozaimasu" is essential for the expression to be polite.
Sumimasen is a true multitasker, but the use you have to learn initially is that of a basic objective "excuse me", frequently supplied where in English we would say "I'm sorry". Shitsurei shimasu, which you saw previously, is also used for this purpose, and is rather more polite.Gomales nasai is a more literal "I'm sorry", rather less polite than the various other two (dropping "nasai" provides it fully informal).
Youkoso andirasshaimase both intend "welcome", butyoukoso is offered in the feeling of "welconcerned our country" (ex. Nihon e youkoso/Welcome to Japan) while irasshaimase has actually even more of a sense of "come in", so you'll hear it provided for customers and guests in stores, restaurants, hotels, and also even dwellings.
Itadakimasu, literally "I receive", is said prior to a meal, and also gochisou-sama deshita is used to say thanks to the organize or prepare after finishing. As you might mean by currently, dropping the "deshita" renders it informal.
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Of the expressions extended so far, feel complimentary to memorize those that you need at the moment and come ago to learn the others as you enrespond to them in whatever before textbook or course you are using.