vertebral kind containing foramina in the transverse processes, with which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain


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A. INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINAB. LAMINAC. PEDICLED. SPINOUS PROCESSE. TRANSVERSE PROCESSF. SUPERIOR ARTICULAR FACETG. VERTEBRAL FORAMENH. BODY


Spinal nerves ( motor axons) leave the vertebral column via the ventral root (wright here they synapse on motor neuron ganglia ) then the ventral horn. Sensory nerves enter the spinal cord using the dorsal horn, synapse on the dorsal ganglia and also enter the spinal cord.

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discs and also the S-shaped of the vertebral column prevent shock to the head in walking and running and also provide versatility to the body trunk


a disc in which the nucleus puposus herniates through the annulus;the nucleus pulposus compresses on the spinal cord causing pain/feasible paralysis


The two main curvatures that we"re born with are the concave forward curvatures in the thoracic and also sacral spines.


The "secondary" curvatures, the compensatory curvatures, occur via normal advance. (Typical breakthrough is the condition under which they occur) These are the cervical curvature, which establishes initially through infant head lifting and also the lumbar curvature, which establishes next sitting up. These curvatures prepare the spine for ambulation.

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The major bony components of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column) are the ___________ and also the _______________.


A totally free floating rib is neither a true or false rib. Ribs 1-7 are taken into consideration "true" ribs because they are straight attached to the sternum by individual seaside cartilperiods. Ribs 8-10 are taken into consideration "false" ribs bereason they are instraight attached to the sternum by a common coastal cartilage. Ribs 11 and also 12 are thought about "cost-free floating" because they are neither directly or indirectly attached to the sternum. Instead, they end in posterior abdominal musculature. They are still capped via cartilage though