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Which of the 4 terrestrial planets has the strongest magnetic field, Mars, Mercury, Venus, or Earth?
The Planet, by much.
The 4 gigantic planets have rather solid magnetic areas. Amongst the terrestrial planets, only the Earth has a moderately solid magnetic field, but weaker than those of the huge planets. Mercury, choose the Planet, has a self-sustained dipole magnetic field, yet a lot weaker than that of the Earth. The Moon, and also perhaps Mars, appear to have actually had actually prehistoric planetary dynamos, but not anyeven more. Finally, Venus also does not have actually a self-sustained dipole magnetic field.
One prior explacountry for why the Moon and Mars execute not have actually self-continual dipole magnetic areas has actually fallen by the wayside. It was long posited that the cores of the Moon and Mars have long given that frozen. This is not the situation. Analyses of the gravity fields of the Moon and also Mars have actually shown that those 2 objects have partially molten cores consisting of iron and also other aspects, simply choose the Earth.
It appears that 3 vital ingredients are essential for a terrestrial planet to have actually a far-reaching magnetic field:A molten or partly molten core consisting of iron, nickel, and various other aspects. All four terrestrial planets and also the Moon pass this criterion.A sufficiently high rotation rate. What that sufficiently high is subject to debate. One rotation per sidereal day is obviously sufficiently high. Mars has actually a very comparable rotation rate however does not have a self-continual dynamo.A sufficiently high heat flux throughout the core-mantle boundary. This is the one aspect that distinguishes the Earth from the various other four terrestrial objects. Mercury, the Moon, and also Mars have static lid tectonics: their surencounters are frozen. Venus shows up to have actually alternated between static lid tectonics (which is what it has actually now) and too much volcanic tectonics (the the majority of effective means to cool a planet).The Earth is the just among those 5 objects to have plate tectonics. While not as reliable as excessive volcanism with regard to cooling a earth, it reportedly is great enough to maintain the warmth flux across the core-mantle boundary that is required to preserve a self-sustaining dynamo.