Chapter 11. Developing a Convincing Argument

In this chapter, we will certainly be applying the ideas presented to you in Chapter 10: Persuasion. Working via the self-practice exercise will help you to construct a strong, convincing argument on a topic of your choice. At the end of Section 11.3: Organizing Your Ideas, you will certainly need to create an outline to show to your instructor.

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11.1 Coming Up With a Topic

Learning Objectives

Identify the demands for your persuasive essayGenerate ideas on a topic for your persuasive essayFormulate a study questionCreate a working thesis showing your topic and also your regulating point of viewConduct preliminary research

The Requirements This assessment is divided right into three components (the needs of each are defined below): A formal outline due week 11 A stormy draft due week 12 A final draft due week 13. You will obtain 2.5% each for components 1 and also 2, and also the final essay is worth 25%.

Essay 3: Persuasion (2.5%+2.5%+25%)

Choose a controversial topic on which you can base a persuasive discussion of 1,350 to 1,500 words.

You must:

Demonstrate the application of dialectics and consideration of changing points of viewConstruct and follow a logical discussion discussionProvide supporting evidence from five to seven supplemental sources and also incorporate a recommendation web page and citations.

Part A: Essay 3: Persuasive formal outline/5 marks (2.5%) **Due week 11**

Create a formal, sentence outline for your instructor’s approval. You have to include:

A working thesisA functioning outlineTopic sentences for each sustaining paragraphNotes of exactly how you arrangement to build your ideasThe sourcing information of where you will certainly get proof to assistance your ideas.

You will certainly be marked on level of completion of the 5 components defined over. You do not have to stick to the outline specifically when you begin working on your draft, yet you will have to show you have done some of the preliminary occupational.

Part B: Essay 3: Persuasive draft/10 marks (2.5%)**Due week 12**

Create a very first draft of your persuasive essay. You need to include:

A finish introductionA complete conclusionParagraph developmentA demonstration of idea developmentA draft referral page

Part C: Essay 3: Persuasive final submission/100 marks (25%)**Due week 13**

Write a 1,350 to 1,500 word persuasive essay on a controversial topic. Use the thesis, evidence, opposing discussion, and also concessionary statement as the basis for creating a full persuasive essay. You have to include:

An engaging introduction

Clear explacountries of all the proof you present

A solid conclusion.

The Controversy A controversial topic is one on which human being have strong views. Imagine the form of conversation that can become really heated, usually as soon as the topic is something civilization are passionate around. But a perchild who is passionate around a details worry does not necessarily intend he or she recognizes the merits of the various other check out (although that regularly happens); it simply means that the perkid has actually collected evidence (from a selection of sources) and synthesized those ideregarding arrive at a particular allude of view. When you are trying to select your topic for your persuasive paper, it is less complicated if you pick a topic around which you feel very strongly. You probably have actually realized by this allude that once you are creating, it is a lot easier to compose about a topic you already have some background expertise on, and also something you are very interested in. This helps to interact you and also store you interested in the composing process. No issue the topic you eventually decide to talk about, tright here are a few points you must think about before you start the composing process. You will certainly need to make certain your subject is: Significant. Is a discussion of this topic one that has actually the potential to contribute to a field of study? Will it make an impact? This does not mean every discussion hregarding readjust lives, yet it requirements to be somepoint relatively vital. For example, a significant topic would certainly be to convince your reader that eating at fast-food restaurants is detrimental to people’s cardiovascular device. A much less significant discussion would be if you were to try to convince your reader why one fast-food restaurant is much better than an additional. Singular. This implies you need to emphasis on one topic. Using the fast-food restaurant example, if you were to emphasis on both the impacts on the cardiovascular and endocrine device, the discussion would certainly lose that singular focus and also tright here would certainly be as well a lot for you to cover. Specific. Similar to the suggest over, your topic requirements to be narrowhead sufficient to enable for you to really comment on the topic within the essay parameters (i.e., word count). Many kind of writers are afrassist of gaining as well certain because they feel they will run out of things to say. If you develop the idea fully and also provide thorough explanations and also plenty of examples, the specificity need to not be a difficulty. Supportable. Does proof for what you desire to talk about actually exist? There is most likely some create of evidence out there also for the most obscure topics or points of watch. However before, you should remember you need to use credible resources. Someone’s opinions posted on a blog about why one fast-food restaurant is the best does not count as credible support for your concepts.

SelfPractice EXERCISE 11.1

In previous chapters, you learned tactics for generating and also narrowing a topic for a study paper. Review the list of general topics below. Also, think about which topics you feel exceptionally strongly.

Freewrite for five minutes on one of the topics listed below. Remember, you will need to focus your ideas to a controllable dimension for a five to sevenweb page research paper.

You are likewise welcome to pick another topic; you may desire to double-inspect through your instructor if it is suitable. It is crucial to remember that you desire your paper to be distinct and also stand also out from others’; writing on overly prevalent topics may not help with this. Due to the fact that we have already questioned the death penalty as a type of punishment in the last chapter and currently occurred concepts, you have to most likely not choose this topic bereason your instructor desires you to demonstrate you have applied the process of crucial thinking on an additional topic.

Identify the vital words you will use in the next selfexercise exercise to preliminary research to narrowhead dvery own your topic.

Some appropriate controversial topics are:

Illegal immigration in CanadaBias in the mediaThe role of religious beliefs in educational systemsThe possibility of life in external spaceModern day slaextremely roughly the people, ie. Person traffickingFopower policyTelevision and also advertisingStereoforms and prejudiceGender duties and the workplaceDriving and also cell phones

Formulating a Research Question

In forming a research study question, you are setting a goal for your study. Your primary research study question must be considerable enough to develop the guiding principle of your paper, yet concentrated sufficient to guide your study. A strong research study question requires you not only to uncover information yet likewise to put together different pieces of information, interpret and also analyze them, and number out what you think. As you take into consideration potential research questions, ask yourself whether they would certainly be too hard or as well straightforward to answer.

To determine your research question, review the freecreating you completed previously. Skim via publications, short articles, and websites and list the concerns you have actually. (You might wish to usage the 5WH strategy to assist you formulate inquiries.) Include simple, factual concerns and more facility questions that need analysis and also interpretation. Determine your primary question—the main focus of your paper—and also a number of subconcerns that you will certainly have to research to answer that primary question.

Here are the study inquiries Jorge will usage to focus his research. Notice that his main study question has no evident, straightforward answer. Jorge will need to study his subinquiries, which address narrower topics, to answer his main question.


SelfPractice EXERCISE 11.2

Using the ideas you came up via in SelfPractice Exercise 11.1, create a research question you would choose to uncover the answer to via your research and persuasive paper development. This is something you will certainly use to aid overview you in your writing and to examine back via to make certain you are answering that question along the method.


Collaborate through a companion and share your inquiries. Describe your topic and also point of check out and also ask your partner if that question connects to that topic and also point of view.

Self Practice EXERCISE 11.3

Working with the topic you have determined, usage the research abilities you learned in previous chapters to situate approximately 5 perhaps advantageous print or digital resources of indevelopment about the topic.

Create a list that consists of the following:

One subject-specific periodicals database most likely to include relevant posts on your topic

Two short articles around your topic composed for an educated general audience

At least one short article about your topic written for an audience with specialized knowledge

Organize your list of sources into primary and also second resources. What makes them either primary or secondary? Pick one main resource and one second source and also compose a sentence or two summarizing the information that each provides.

Then answer these questions:

What form of major source did you choose? Who composed it, and why? Do you think this resource gives exact indevelopment, or is it biased in some way?

Where did the indevelopment in the second resource come from? Was the writer citing an initial research, piece of literary works, or work-related of art? Wright here can you uncover the primary source?

Selfexercise EXERCISE 11.4

With the topic from SelfPractice Exercise 11.1 and also the preliminary research you conducted in SelfPractice 11.3 and also referring to Section 10.2: The Structure of a Persuasive Essay,develop a functioning thesis and scratch outline.

Note that after reading Section 11.2: Dialectics, you will certainly the majority of likely revise your outline.

How to Be Really Convincing Sometimes it deserve to be exceptionally difficult to convince someamong your concepts and that your point of see is valid. If your reader has actually strong contrary views or has had emotional experiences in the past connected to that topic, your job in persuading will be more challenging. However before, if you think about your audience and tone (as discussed in Section 10.3: Being Critical) and also think about the answers to the complying with questions in Checklist 11.1, Who Is My Audience?, you will be better able to predict possible objections your reader may have to your dispute and also deal with those accordingly. It will also aid you make acknowledge just how much and what type of background indevelopment you must carry out your reader through conmessage for your conversation.

Checklist 11.1 Who Is My Audience?

Who are my readers?

What perform they already know on the subject?

What are they most likely to be interested in?

How impartial or biased are they?

Is the topic one that may challenge their ethical or moral beliefs?

What worths do we share?

What types of evidence will be the majority of effective?

Selfpractice EXERCISE 11.5

Look back at the 2 persuasive essay examples in Section 10.4:Examples: Persuasive Essays.With a partner, talk about the strengths and also weaknesses of each instance.Look at the credibility, tone, appropriateness to audience, and completeness of the concepts presented.

Example 1
Example 2

Collaboration: With your partner, comment on how you might make each of these debates more powerful.

Learning Objectives

Exsimple the components, practice, and benefits of dialectical thinkingConduct a language conversation to consider various other points of watch on your topic

As you review in Chapter 10, Section 10.3: Being Critical, a strong persuasive essay will respectcompletely recognize and also discuss perspectives of the very same topic. When you do this, you are presenting a well-rounded and also finish conversation to your reader that reflects you have critically believed around the topic and have been selective in choosing your points. As an outcome, there is a higher probably that you will convince your reader. The procedure of looking at multiple sides of a topic is dubbed dialectics.

Dialectics is the act of making use of logical thinking to combine, juxtapose, or synthesize opposing ideas to arrive at a solid conclusion.

The Materials of Dialectics To start the dialectic procedure, you first should come up through an concept of what topic will certainly be discussed; this is the thesis behind the discussion. Once you have actually figured out your thesis, via assorted methods (the most basic being discussion through someone else), you will explore opposing sides to the topic, eventually discovering at least one antithesis. Combining those 2 perspectives, you have the right to then make your own conclusions. Maybe this procedure will certainly bring about you standing by the original thesis, or perhaps the antithesis is extremely convincing and also you will certainly switch sides of the dispute, or probably you still think the original thesis but accept tright here are various other conditions that have actually credibility also. This end outcome is dubbed the synthesis: the blfinishing of principles. Essentially, the process would look like this:


Considering both your thesis and the uncovered antithetical perspectives will aid you to arrive at a wider see of a topic: one that has actually more credibility. Looking ago to the persuasive essay samples you check out in Section 10.4 and also disputed in SelfPractice Exercise 11.5, think about to what level the authors recognized opposing views. How did they justify their opinions? Consider just how integrating dialectics right into each of those disagreements to a greater degree would certainly have strengthened their points of check out, eventually making their arguments more convincing.

Selfpractice EXERCISE 11.6

Based on the thesis “Governments use funding punishment as an reliable tool for deterring violent crime, answer the following inquiries and also finish the table.

What is your stance on this statement? To what level carry out you agree/disagree?


Complete the table considering the thesis statement offered over.

First finish the side of the table via ideas supporting the point of watch you defined in question #1.

Then, difficulty yourself to come up with concepts (you might have to do a little bit of research) that would support the various other side of the discussion.

Supporting the statementAgainst the statement

Collaboration: Discuss your answers with a companion. Do you both have the exact same concepts, or can you include to your list based on what your companion has actually come up through.

After coming up with and considering the various other perspective, has your suggest of check out readjusted at all?

Do you still stick by your very same point of view 100 percent? Or perform you concede that tright here are valid points from the various other perspective?

SelfPractice Exercise 11.7/Discussion 3

Using both the scratch outline and also the working thesis you developed in SelfPractice Exercise 11.4, create a table prefer the one you offered in SelfPractice Exercise 11.6, only filling in the side via indevelopment that supports your thesis.

Once you have actually created that table through your thesis provided, share your table and also thesis via a classmate.

Collaborate: Conduct a dialectic discussion on your topic and possible for and against the working thesis you presented. Add any type of points to your original table.

Remember to be aware of the procedure of synthesis you have actually gone with. Did your original allude of view adjust at all? Is there anything you deserve to make concessions on being valid? This might impact your thesis.

Using one or 2 of the opposing ideas your partner assisted you come up through, revise your scratch outline from SelfPractice Exercise 11.4.

Learning Objectives

Revise your functioning thesisCreate an outline consisting of your thesis and main and sustaining pointsDetermine an correct organizational structure for a persuasive essay that uses important evaluation to affix your concepts and also information taken from sources

For this section, you will should refer back to Section 10.2: The Structure of a Persuasive Essay to aid you piece your sustaining and opposing ideas together.

Creating an Review and also Thesis

The persuasive essay begins via an engaging advent that presents the general topic. The thesis typically shows up somewbelow in the arrival and states the writer’s point of watch.

Reevaluate Your Working Thesis

A mindful analysis of your notes will certainly aid you re-evaluate your functioning thesis and determine whether you need to revise it. Remember that your functioning thesis was the beginning point—not necessarily the finish point—of your research. You have to revise your working thesis if your principles adjusted based on what you review. Even if your resources mainly confirmed your preliminary thinking on the topic, it is still a great concept to tweak the wording of your thesis to incorpoprice the particular details you learned from research.

Jorge realized that his functioning thesis overstreamlined the problems. He still thought that the media was exaggerating the benefits of low-carb diets. However, his research led him to conclude that these diets did have some advantages. Read Jorge’s revised thesis.



Avoid forming a thesis based upon an unfavorable insurance claim. For instance, “The hourly minimum wage is not high enough for the average worker to live on.” This is most likely a true statement, but persuasive debates need to make a positive case. That is, the thesis statement have to emphasis on how the hourly minimum wage is low or inenough.

Selfexercise EXERCISE 11.8

On a sheet of paper, usage your functioning thesis and also the revised outline from SelfPractice Exercise 11.7 and also list the types of evidence you might use in assistance of that thesis. Basically, you are broadening your outline to include more source indevelopment.

Synthesizing and Organizing Information

By currently, your reasoning on your topic is taking form. You have a sense of what major ideregarding attend to in your paper, what points you can conveniently assistance, and also what questions or subtopics might require a little even more assumed. In brief, you have actually started the process of synthesizing information—that is, of placing the pieces together into a systematic totality.

It is normal to find this component of the procedure a tiny tough. Some inquiries or concepts may still be unclear to you. You might not yet understand exactly how you will tie every one of your study together. Synthesizing indevelopment is a complicated, demanding psychological task, and also knowledgeable researchers battle via it at times. A little bit uncertainty is frequently a great sign! It implies you are challenging yourself to work thoughttotally via your topic instead of simply restating the same indevelopment.

Synthesizing Information

You have actually currently taken into consideration how your notes fit through your functioning thesis. Now, take your synthesis a step further. Organize your notes with headings that correspond to points and subpoints you came up with through dialectics and also compiled in your outline, which you presented to your instructor. As you proceed, you can recognize some more vital subtopics that were not component of your original arrangement, or you might decide that some points are not appropriate to your paper.

Categorize indevelopment very closely and proceed to think critically about the product. Ask yourself whether the sources are dependable and whether the connections between principles are clear.

Remember, your ideas and conclusions will certainly shape the paper. They are the glue that holds the remainder of the content together. As you work, start jotting down the significant principles you will certainly use to attach the dots for your reader. (If you are not sure where to start, try answering your significant research question and also subconcerns. Add and answer new inquiries as appropriate.) You can record these massive concepts on sticky notes or type and highlight them within an electronic record.

Jorge looked ago on the list of research concerns that he had actually composed dvery own previously. He changed a couple of to complement his brand-new thesis, and he started a rough outline for his paper.


You might be wondering how your concepts are intended to form the paper, especially given that you are creating a research study paper based upon your study. Integrating your concepts and also your indevelopment from research study is a complicated procedure, and also periodically it deserve to be difficult to sepaprice the 2.

Some paragraphs in your paper will certainly consist mainly of details from your research. That is fine, as lengthy as you explain what those details mean or how they are linked. You must additionally include sentences and also transitions that display the partnership in between various facts from your study by grouping associated ideas or discussing relationships or contrasts. The outcome is that you are not sindicate presenting information; you are synthesizing, analyzing, and interpreting it.

Plan How to Organize Your Paper

The last action to complete prior to beginning your draft is to pick an business framework. For some assignments, this may be figured out by the instructor’s requirements. For circumstances, if you are asked to check out the influence of a brand-new communications device, a cause-and-effect structure is obviously proper. In other cases, you will should determine the framework based on what suits your topic and objective.

The function of Jorge’s paper was primarily to guide. With that in mind, he planned the adhering to outline.


Essay 3: outline (2.5%)

Resee the organizational framework debated in Chapter 10: Persuasion. Working with the notes you arranged earlier, follow these measures to start planning just how to organize your paper.

Create an outline that contains your working thesis, major subtopics, and sustaining points.

The major headings in your outline will end up being sections or paragraphs in your paper. Remember that your principles must form the backbone of the paper. For each significant section of your outline, write a topic sentence stating the primary allude you will make in that area.

As you finish step 2, you may uncover that some points are as well facility to define in a sentence. Consider whether any kind of significant sections of your outline need to be broken up and also jot down extra topic sentences as essential.

Resee your notes and also determine how the different pieces of indevelopment fit into your outline as supporting points.

Add any kind of resources you have identified that you arrangement on using to assistance your concepts.


Please share the outline you created via a classmate.Examine your classmate’s outline and also watch if any inquiries come to mind or if you watch any kind of location that would certainly advantage from a second point or clarification. Rerotate the outlines to each various other and also compare observations.After you have actually discussed your formal outline through a classmate, submit it to your instructor for approval.

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You will obtain as much as 2.5% towards your final grade depending on just how thoapproximately you have actually performed a dialectical conversation and emerged your outline.