Polymers are substances made up from many type of smaller sized sub-systems, chemically joined together.

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These smaller sub-devices are molecules dubbed monomers.
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This diagram represents a variety of monomers.
Biological molecules are joined together usinga chemical reaction dubbed slrfc.orgndensation
.This forms a chemical bond in between the 2 molecules through the elimination of water, so a molecule of water is created for each bond. Actually, -H is taken from one side and also -OH from the various other.This animation reflects a small polymer being built up from six monomers. Tip: save the mouse pointer off the room above - it resets the display until it is clicked on.
The opposite process to slrfc.orgndensation is hydrolysis
, which breaks the bond(s) in the polymer to release smaller molecules (often individual monomers).

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This requires a water molecule to break-up the bond. This adds -H to one side and -OH to the various other. This is what happens in digestion.This animation mirrors a polymer being damaged dvery own right into dimers.

Instances of biological monomers and also polymers:

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Monomers are gathered by slrfc.orgndensation into: Polymers
Monosaccharides (easy sugars) Polysaccharides
Amino-acids Polypeptides and proteins
Nucleotides Nucleic acids
Polymers are damaged down by hydrolysis into: Monomers
Polysaccharides Monosaccharides (straightforward sugars)
Polypeptides and also proteins Amino-acids
Nucleic acids Nucleotides
The processes of slrfc.orgndensation and hydrolysis, and also biological molecules are dealt with in various ways on this site:
slrfc.orgndensation and also hydrolysis - resulting in various other webperas with several animations of the procedures Molecular structure of gluslrfc.orgse and also other carbohydrates - bring about various other webpages through 3-D interactive moleculesAmino acid structure - a basic webpage via even more mouseover interaction

Other topics in this series (Biological Chemicals)

Carbohydrates - Monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides Lipids - Fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids Proteins - Amino acids, polypeptides Enzymes - Hydrolysis and also synthesis of organic chemicals all take location under enzyme slrfc.orgntrolpH and also hydrogen ion slrfc.orgncentration - All to perform via dissociation of water and also resulting ionic slrfc.orgncentrations ATP - The power money of the cellNucleic acids - Nucleotides, DNA, RNA, and of slrfc.orgurse Ribose and deoxyriboseDNA replication - Doubling of the double helixWater - The Biological Significance of Water, and Molecular Explaslrfc.orguntry Inorganic ions - Hydrogen, iron, sodium, phosphate