The nitrogen family contains the following compounds: nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and also bismuth (Bi). All Group 15 facets have actually the electron configuration ns2np3 in their outer shell, wright here n is equal to the principal quantum number. The nitrogen family is located in the p-block in Group 15, as shown below.

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Periodic Trends

All Group 15 aspects tend to follow the basic routine trends:

Electronegativity (the atom"s ability of attracting electrons) decreases down the team. Ionization energy (the amount of energy compelled to remove an electron from the atom in its gas phase) decreases dvery own the team. Atomic radii boost in dimension dvery own the team. Electron affinity (the ability of the atom to accept an electron) decreases dvery own the team. Melting suggest (amount of energy forced to break bonds to readjust a solid phase substance to a liquid phase substance) boosts dvery own the group. Boiling allude (amount of power forced to break bonds to adjust a liquid phase substance to a gas) rises dvery own the group. Metallic character boosts down the team. Element/SymbolAtomic NumberMassElectron ConfigurationCovalent Radius (pm)ElectronegativityFirst Ionizaton Energy (kJ/mol)Common Physical Form(s) Properties of Group 15 Elements
Nitrogen (N) 7 14.01 1s2 2s2 2p3 75 3.0 1402 Colormuch less Gas
Phosphorus (P) 15 30.97 3s2 3p3 110 2.1 1012 White Solid / Red Solid
Arsenic (As) 33 74.92 3d10 4s2 4p3 121 2.0 947 Yellow Solid / Gray Solid
Antimony (Sb) 51 121.76 4d10 5s2 5p3 140 1.9 834 Yellow Solid / Silver-White Metallic Solid
Bismuth (Bi) 83 208.98 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3 155 1.9 703 Pink-White Metallic Solid

Nitrogen

Nitrogen was found in 1770 by Scheele and also Priestley. This nonmetallic aspect has no shade, taste or odor and is present in nature as a noncombustible gas. When compared through the rest of Group 15, nitrogen has the greatest electronegativity which makes it the most nonmetallic of the group. The prevalent oxidation claims of nitrogen are +5, +3, and also -3. Nitrogen provides up around 0.002% of the earth"s crust; but, it constitutes 78% of the earth’s atmosphere by volume. Nitrogen has actually likewise been uncovered in the settings of Venus and also Mars. Venus has a 3.5% nitrogen volume in its setting and Mars has actually a 2.7% nitrogen volume in its setting. Nitrogen is uncovered naturally in pet and plant proteins and also in fossilized continues to be of ancient plant life. Important nitrogen-containing minerals are niter, KNO3, and soda niter, NaNO3​, which are uncovered in desert regions and are necessary components of fertilizers. Before the process of converting nitrogen right into ammonia was discovered, sources of nitrogen were limited. One of the processes of converting nitrogen to ammonia, the Haber-Bosch process, is extremely important for the manufacturing of nitrogen. Nitrogen has actually very little bit solubility in liquids. N2 does not have actually any allotropes.

The unnormally secure N2(g) nitrogen gas is the source in which all nitrogen compounds are inevitably derived. N2(g) is stable because of its electronic structure: the bond between the 2 nitrogen atoms of N2 is a triple covalent bond which is solid and also hard to break. The enthalpy change linked through breaking the bonds in N2 is very endothermic: ΔH = +945.4 kJ. Nitrogen gas is supplied as a refrigerant, metal treatment, and also pressurized gas for oil recoextremely. In addition, the Gibbs energies of development of nitrogen compounds present that their formations are nonspontaneous, and the adhering to process does not happen at normal temperatures:

<1/2N_2(g) + 1/2O_2 ightarrow NO_(g)>

with

<ΔG_f= +86.55;kJ, mol^​-1>

The oxides and also oxyacids of nitrogen incorporate nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen oxide (NO), and also nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Nitrous oxide, additionally dubbed “laughing gas,” is used in dental job-related, boy birth, and to rise the speed of cars. Nitrogen oxide is found in smog and neurotransmitters. Hydrazine, N2H4​, is a poisonous, colorless liquid that explodes in air. Hydrazine is a great reducing agent, and methyl hydrazine is frequently provided as a rocket fuel.


Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic aspect. The a lot of prevalent oxidation state of phosphorus is -3. Phosphorus is the eleventh most abundant element, making up 0.11% of the earth"s crust. The main resource of phosphorus compounds is phosphorus rocks. Phosphorous is not discovered pure in nature, however in the create of apatite ores. These include compounds such as fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F), which in fluoridated water is used to strengthen teeth, and also hydroxylapatite (Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6), a major component of tooth enamel and bone material. Phosphorus exhibits allotropic forms: the a lot of widespread creates at room temperature are white phosphorus and also red phosphorus. White phosphorus is a white, waxy solid that can be reduced with a knife. It develops a tetrahedral molecule, P4. White phosphorus is toxic, while red phosphorus is nontoxic. Red phosphorous creates once white phosphorous is heated to 573 Kelvin and also not exposed to air. Red phosphorus is less reenergetic than white phosphorus. Red phosphorus has a chain favor polymeric structure, and also is even more steady. Both white and also red phosphorus are incendiary and have been offered to make match tips, although the use of white phosphorus has actually been mostly discontinued due to toxicity. Phosphorus has many type of applications: phosphorus trichloride (PCl3) is offered in soaps, detergents, plastics, synthetic rubber nylon, motor oils, insecticides and herbicides; phosphoric acid, H3PO4​, is supplied in fertilizers; phosphorus is additionally widespread in the food industry, used in baking powders, instant cereals, cheese, the curing of ham, and also in the tartness of soft drinks.


Arsenic

Arsenic is a highly poisonous metalloid. Due to the fact that it is a metalloid, arsenic has actually a high density, modeprice thermal conductivity, and also a minimal ability to conduct power. The oxidation says of arsenic are +5, +3, +2, +1, and also -3. The 3 allotropic develops of arsenic are yellow, black, and also gray; the gray allotrope is the the majority of widespread. Compounds of arsenic are offered in insecticides, weed killers, and alloys. The oxide of arsenic is amphoteric, interpretation it deserve to act as both an acid and a base. Arsenic is greatly acquired by heating arsenic-containing sulfides. The slrfc.orgical formula for this procedure is provided below:

< FeAsS_(s) ightarrowhead FeS_(s) + As_(g)>

The (As_(g)) deposits as (As_(s)) which can then be supplied to make other compounds. Arsenic have the right to also be obtained by the reduction of arsenic(III) oxide through (CO_(g)).


Antimony

Antimony is likewise a metalloid. The oxidation claims of antimony are +3, -3, and also +5. Antimony exhibits allotropy; the most secure allotrope is the metallic develop, which is equivalent in properties to arsenic: high thickness, modeprice thermal conductivity, and also a restricted ability to conduct power. The oxide of antimony is antimony (III) oxide which is amphoteric, interpretation it deserve to act as both an acid and a base. Antimony is derived mainly from its sulfide ores, and it vaporizes at low temperatures. Alengthy with arsenic, antimony is commonly offered in alloys. Arsenic, antimony, and lead create an alloy with desirable properties for electrodes in lead-acid batteries. Arsenic and antimony are likewise provided to develop semiconductor materials such as GaAs, GaSb, and also InSb in electronic devices.


Bismuth

Bismuth is a metallic facet. The oxidation states of bismuth are +3 and +5. Bismuth is a bad metal (one through substantial covalent character) that is similar to both arsenic and antimony. Bismuth is commonly provided in cosmetic commodities and medicine. Out of the team, bismuth has the lowest electronegativity and also ionization power, which indicates that it is more most likely to shed an electron than the rest of the Group 15 facets. This is why bismuth is the many metallic of Group 15. Bismuth is additionally a bad electric conductor. The oxide of bismuth is bismuth(III) oxide; it acts as a base, as intended for a metal oxides. Bismuth is acquired as a by-product of the refining of various other metals, permitting other metals to recycle their by-products right into bismuth.


References

Petrucci, Ralph H., William S. Harhardwood, Geoff E. Herring, and Jeffry D. Madura. General slrfc.orgisattempt : Principles and also Modern Applications. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall PTR, 2006. Kotz, John C., and also Paul Treichel. slrfc.orgistry and also slrfc.orgical Reactivity. 3rd ed. New York, CA: Saunders College, 1996. Coppola, Brian D.; Hovick, James W.; Daniels, Douglas S. "I Scream, You Scream...: A New Twist on the Liquid Nitrogen Demonstrations." J. slrfc.org. Educ.

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1994, 71, 1080.

Problems

How a lot of the earth"s crust is consisted of of nitrogen? How much of earth"s crust is not comprised of phosphorus? What kind of bond does N2 have? How are red phosphorus and also white phosphorus concerned each other? What is the electron configuration of arsenic? Does bismuth have actually metallic properties or nonmetallic properties? True or False: nitrogen and phosphorus are steels. Which Group 15 facet has a greatest atomic radius? Which Group 15 element is the strongest reducing agent? True or False: bismuth exhibits the the majority of metallic character. What is the most prevalent physical create of nitrogen? What is the process in which nitrogen can convert into ammonia? Which element has actually the highest possible first ionization energy? Complete and balance the adhering to reaction: _N2(g) + _H2(g) -> ____ What is the widespread oxidation state of all Group 15 elements?

Answers

0.002% of earth"s crust is made of nitrogen. Earth"s crust is comprised of 0.11% of phosphorus, so 99.89% of earth"s crust is not made up of phosphorus. N2 has a triple covalent bond that is strong and hard to break. Red phosphorus and white phosphorus are both allotropes of phosphorus. Red phosphorus originates from white phosphorus when it is heated to around 573 Kelvin. 3d10 4s2 4p3 Bismuth has metallic properties. False; both nitrogen and also phosphorus are nonsteels. According to regular fads, bismuth has the biggest atomic radius. According to regular patterns, bismuth is the strongest reducing agent since it has an electronegativity value of 1.9 which is the exact same as Antimony however it has actually a reduced ionization energy of 703 kJ/mol which implies it is more most likely to gain oxidized. True; bismuth is the just metallic aspect of Group 15. The a lot of common physical create of nitrogen is a colormuch less gas. The procedure of converting nitrogen right into ammonia is recognized as the Haber-Bosch procedure. According to periodic trends, nitrogen would certainly have the highest first ionization energy which suggests that it does not desire to lose an electron the a lot of. N2(g) + 3H2(g) -> 2NH3(g) The common oxidation state for all Group 15 aspects is -3.

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