Object-Oriented Programming is a very helpful programming form for developing objects that have information and also features. We normally come across the OOP term and also its values in languages choose C#, JavaScript, Java, and also many others. In this article, we will certainly touch on among its 4 ethics using Java: Encapsulation.

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Before explaining what Encapsulation is, let’s look at its definition. Encapsulation suggests enclosing something in a capsule for maintaining together whatever we put inside. A capsule does not let it's contents out so ingredients can stay together. For example, medicine is some mixture encapsulated inside a pill that we can usage when we require it. With that pill, the ingredients of the medication are the exact same as the initially time it was blended and the contents inside cannot be readjusted from the external.

Let’s change some words tbelow and also attempt to look from the developers’ scope. If we put “Objects” rather of “medicine” and also “Classes” instead of the “pill” then our ingredients come to be “Methods” and also “Variables” inside that course. Here comes the primary sentence for our principle:

An object should encapsulate its techniques and variables inside a course and also have to usage them once essential.

Encapsulation simply aims to keep information and also techniques together to avoid repetition and also develop correct and logical connections between objects. Also, it lets the developer put some rules on the object developing and also making use of. But just how have the right to we carry out that? There are 4 keywords for this easy yet important action: Public, Private, Default, Protected. We speak to them “Access Modifiers” and also any information structure declaration starts through them.


The “public” keyword is incredibly widespread and also we have the right to see it in any type of programming language. As we deserve to deduce from its definition, the “public” keyword allows consumption wherever, also exterior of wright here it is declared. Let’s suppose we have actually a technique called run() and it is public. Whenever before an object is developed, which has run() method inside, we deserve to call that approach without any type of error. It is a pretty plain case if we perform not use any other access modifier.


The “private” keyword does the specific oppowebsite of the “public” keyword. It does not enable any type of usage external of class that is asserted. If we change the public strategy run() to personal we cannot use it wherever the object is developed. If we try to speak to it, the compiler throws an error instantly through “run() has exclusive access” sentence.


The “default” access modifier has no keyword. If we don’t create public, private, or protected that means that the information structure has a default access modifier. This access modifier is likewise restricting some accessibility however not as a lot as private. If a data framework is a default, it have the right to be offered in the very same package however it is not enabled to be supplied in various other packages.


For explaining the “protected” keyword, we need to briefly cite another OOP principle, “Inheritance”. Inheritance enables a parent-child relationship in between objects. With that principle, classes have the right to inherit some approaches and variables from other classes and use them. We speak to “subclass” which inherits some data from various other classes, and “superclass” which is inherited.

Difference between “default” and also “protected” steps in below. The default accessibility modifier doesn’t permit for usage external of its package yet defended information structures can be supplied in subclasses that are outside of its package.

We speak to using accessibility modifiers “Data Hiding”. The question becomes: Does hiding something suppose that we won’t usage it again? No, right? People hide something to use later on however just as soon as necessary. Like exactly how we usage medicine once we get sick. After we hide our information, we deserve to develop some approaches to change these information or use them later on. We call these approaches “Getter and also Setter Methods”.

Getter and also Setter Methods

These methods are not unique methods favor constructors and they carry out not need to be written. Getter and Setter techniques are simply simply globally welcomed and also used approaches and they have actually a dominance for naming. We put ‘get’ and ‘variable name’ for the naming of a Getter Method, and we carry out the very same point with ‘set’ for a Setter method. It is not essential for code functions yet it renders your code cleaner and more understandable. Let’s explain with an example:

public course Cat private String name; private int age; last int numOfLegs = 4; public String getName() rerevolve name; public void setName(String name) this.name = name; public int getAge() return age; public void setAge(int age) this.age = age; We have a class called Cat and also it has personal variables. If we desire to change the value of the ‘name’ variable we can usage the setName() method or we deserve to usage that worth with the getName() approach because they are public, unprefer the ‘name’ variable.

Cat cat = new Cat();cat.setName("Garfield");System.out.println(cat.getName());These techniques carry out not execute anypoint special, right? Just a normal declaration and also returning that value. The point is they do these little bit actions in methods and approaches have the right to be manipulated by developers.

Suppose we created this code for a ‘Cat Beauty Contest’ and they just allow 0–1 years old cats to challenge. If we update ‘age’ straight through the ‘= operator, we might reason unintfinished side results somewhere else in our code. Also, we a lot of most likely need to attend to many type of if-else blocks. If we desire to stop this worry by making use of a Setter method, we need to add a condition once to the Setter Method of age:

public void setAge(int age) if (age > 0 && age throw new IllegalArgumentException(); this.age = age;}Read-Only and also Write-Only ClassesGetter and Setter methods also let us produce “Read-Only Class” and also “Write-Only Class”. Like we shelp before, Getter and Setter techniques are not obliged to be part of that class. We require Setter approaches to collection a brand-new worth to a private variable but what if we execute not have any type of Setter techniques and just Getter methods? It means, we have the right to only use that variable however we cannot readjust it from exterior of that course which makes that course Read-Only.

//Read-Only Cat Classpublic class Cat exclusive String name; private int age; public String getName() rerevolve name; public int getAge() rerevolve age; As with the Read-Only course, if we do not usage any kind of Getter methods and only usage Setter methods, it provides that course Write-Only. With that, we developed a class that has actually changeable however non-usable variables.

//Write-Only Cat Classpublic course Cat personal String name; private int age; public void setName(String name) this.name = name; public void setAge(int age) this.age = age; Achievements and also ConclusionWe learned what Encapsulation is and exactly how it deserve to be offered however what did we attain by that?

We hid our data from unintended transforms,We developed a course that has control over what is stored inside its fields,We developed Read-Only and also Write-Only classes,We diminished human-based errors,We wrote our code in a cleaner and even more understandable means,We made our application much easier.

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Encapsulation is just one of the massive pillars that OOP is developed on. By utilizing OOP, we aim to create even more practical, shorter, cleaner, less complicated to maintain, more secure, and also reusable codes. Encapsulation virtually helps every one of these intends of OOP and also therefore it has been extremely important and also important to learn. Understanding it is a crucial to success in Object-Oriented Programming.