This short article provides an introduction of Taiwan’s educational mechanism in the context of current occasions, including a political change, the influence of fast massification of Taiwan’s better education sector, and Taiwan’s declining birth prices. The article supplies an overview of current educational mobility patterns among Taiwanese students, and provides sample credentials, and a list of the types of documents required by for credential testimonial.

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A 13,974 square-mile island located off the southeast coast of China, Taiwan is greatly affected by its relationship with China. China claims Taiwan, which is residence to approximately 23 million civilization, as a district. Taiwan, meanwhile, acts as a de facto independent nation and has actually had actually a democratically chosen government since 1996. In May 2016, Tsai Ing-wen, the head of the traditionally pro-self-reliance party, ended up being Taiwan’s first female president. At her inauguration, Tsai Ing-wen pledged to defend neighborhood democracy and also to alleviate economic dependence on China. China, meanwhile, restricted coverage of the inauguration to state-run media and began pressuring Tsai Ing-wen to clarify her place on the ‘One China’ doctrine that has governed the two countries’ partnership given that 1992.

Tension over statehood is manifest at the many basic level of official nomenclature. Taiwan is officially known as the Republic of China. Accordingly, its central educational authority is the Minisattempt of Education of the Republic of China.


Rundown of the Education System

The Minisattempt of Education (MoE) is responsible for setting and also maintaining education plans and also regulating public organizations of education and learning throughout Taiwan. The education and learning system comprises:

Basic education:Elementary education and learning (six years)Junior high school education and learning (3 years)Senior secondary education (3 years of either senior vocational colleges or senior high schools)Higher education and learning establishments, consisting of colleges, colleges, institutes of innovation, and graduate colleges and postgraduate programs

The official language of instruction is Mandarin Chinese, and also the academic year runs from September to June. The literacy rate among Taiwanese periods 15 and also above was 98.5 percent as of 2014.

Students graduating from the Taiwanese education and learning device execute so through some of the highest scores in the world on comparative global tests, specifically in even more technological fields such as math and science. However before, the system has been on a regular basis criticized for too good a focus on memorization (not atypical for this area of the world), and for developing graduates doing not have the imagination of those coming from devices through even more generalist, less exam-concentrated, curricular. In Taiwan, policydevices have actually attempted to deal with this viewed shortcoming via a series of ongoing educational reforms.

Recreates at the Basic and also Secondary Levels

Until freshly, compulsory education in Taiwan lasted only nine years (6 years of elementary education and learning and also 3 years of junior high).

As of 2014, the minisattempt applied reforms that added 3 years of compulsory senior secondary education to the curriculum. Amongst various other objectives, the transition to the 12-year mechanism sneed to attend to long-standing objections of the previous device. Per the Center on Internationwide Education Benchnoting, the reforms:

Created ‘exam free’ pathmethods to upper secondary schoolDecentral an overly restrictive curriculumOffered high-quality beforehand childhood education to all studentsSubsidized students from disadvantaged dwellings, and also strengthened supports for disadvantaged studentsMade arts education easily accessible to all studentsPromoted e-learning

(More information about major and additional education and learning in Taiwan, and sample credentials, are obtainable later on in this short article.)

Higher Education: Massification, Over-Capacity, and Contraction

Over the last 30 years, Taiwan’s better education and learning device has undertaken quick massification, transcreating from an elite system to a global one. More than 5 million Taiwanese currently host post-secondary degrees; an approximated 1.3 million have graduate degrees, up from 570,000 in 2005. Rapid growth has actually strained both the higher education and learning sector and Taiwan’s economic climate, through extremely educated graduates flooding an island also labor sector that is not able to absorb them.

Growth started in the mid-1980s, and accelerated in 1996, once the Taiwanese government sanctioned the production of new personal better education and learning establishments and brand-new players flooded the sector. It increased when president Chen Shui-bian ( who offered from 2000-2008) sneed to accomplish his project promise of a “university in eexceptionally county.” Between 1984 and 2014, the total variety of greater education establishments (HEIs) in Taiwan jumped from 105 to 159 – a development rate of 66 percent.

In the challenge of low birth rates and also decreasing demand also, Taiwan’s Ministry of Education announced plans to merge some universities start in 2015. According to the Taipei Times, the “ministry approximated that eight to 12 of the 51 public colleges in the nation, and 20 to 40 of the 101 exclusive universities” would certainly merge or cshed by 2023. The setup is a response to the populace decrease, and to overarching pertains to about both the high quality and also sustaincapacity of the sector.

Population decline poses an ongoing obstacle for Taiwan’s higher education and learning sector and also has actually implications for both inbound and outbound mobility. The Ministry of Education has actually predicted that the number of enrolled students will certainly “drop by a third by 2023.” Recent write-ups also note various other obstacles that the Taiwanese higher education and learning sector has actually faced in remaining competitive in a globalized education market, not leastern in terms of government budobtain alareas. The federal government allotment for education and learning in Taiwan represents less than one-quarter of the country’s budgain, with only one-3rd of that going to higher education. That money is then alsituated to better education organizations throughout the nation, making it challenging for colleges to contend for and also save scholars and staff who have more lucrative opportunities in various other countries.

Recent ranqueens have also hurt Taiwanese establishments. Taiwan’s height university, National Taiwan College, recently endured a significant fall in its visibility on the Times Higher Education World College Ranmonarchs list. On the 2014-2015 list, the university’s rank fell significantly from #51 down to #155. On this year’s list, the university has actually not enhanced and is ranked at #167.

Ongoing mergers pose added challenges. One proposed merger in between National Tsing Hua and National Hsingchu Regular, for circumstances, has actually increased involves that National Tsing Hua University’s top quality and also reputation will suffer. Students have actually also held protests regarding the regarded “hasty planning and a absence of transparency in the decision-making process.”

International Student Mobility

For two years in the late 1980s, before China arised as the internationally leading supplier of worldwide students, Taiwan was the leading sender of students to the USA. The number of Taiwanese students on U.S. campoffers peaked 1993/94 at some 37,581. It has been declining ever considering that.

In the 2014-2015 academic year, Taiwain sent 20,993 students to the U.S., making it “seventh leading location of origin” for U.S.-enrolled worldwide students. (In 2013-2014, it organized the sixth spot on the list.) Roughly three-quarters of Taiwanese students in the U.S. enroll in greater education; 28.8 percent seek undergraduate studies, and also 45.8 percent enroll in graduate programs. The remaining 25.4 percent enroll in optional valuable training programs and also other educational programs.

The 2014-2015 scholastic year represents the eighth consecutive year of decreasing UNITED STATE enrollments of Taiwanese students — yet various other regions around the globe have actually checked out expansion. For circumstances, in 2012/13, also as Taiwanese enrollments dropped in the U.S, the Minisattempt of Education reported a slight uptick in outbound student mobility in other places. In 2013, the U.K. saw a spike in enrollments, through some 16,000 Taiwanese studying in the U.K. – a substantial leap over the 4,600 the previous year. China’s vice minister of education and learning, Chen Te-hua, attributed the spike to energetic recruitment by U.K. establishments. In 2014, Australia experienced its complete number of Taiwanese enrollments rise to 9,998, a 24.3 percent increase over the prior year’s tally of 7,200.

More freshly, Taiwan has actually also concentrated inbound mobility among global student from other countries. In 2014, for circumstances, Taiwan’s federal government establiburned a 2020 goal of 150,000 global greater education and learning enrollments. Taiwan has actually checked out results from these international recruitment initiatives, with a boost of 17.7 percent in its numbers of international students between 2014 and also 2015. The current international student full of 110,000 is generally consisted of of students from mainland also China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Malaysia.

In Brief: The Education System of Taiwan


Preinstitution education and learning is not part of Taiwan’s compulsory education system; it is, however, sustained by the government, which provides assistance to financially disadvantaged family members to enroll their youngsters. In 2012, the Early Childhood Education and also Care Act consolidated the education and learning and also care of young kids periods 2-6 under a solitary governmental mechanism.

Private preschools are not sanctioned by the government, yet many exist. A number of private precollege chains run under franchise arrangements throughout the nation, supplying accelerated courses to capitalize on public demand also for academic achievement. Many type of market English immersion programs.

Primary Education

Compulsory education begins at the main level, at age six. It spans grades 1 through 6. Key subjects encompass Mandarin, mathematics, science, English (typically beginning in Grade 5), aboriginal languages, social studies, homeland also education, music, and art.

Students graduate from main college with a main school diploma. They are not forced to take a test to enter junior high college.

Junior High School

Junior high institution lasts 3 years, from grades 7 through 9.

Junior high students may go after either an academic or vocational track. Upon graduation from grade 9, students continue on to senior high school. Those on the academic track must take an exam to attain placement in high college. (Redevelops have actually smust minimize the push imposed by a notoriously difficult high institution entrance exam; more on this listed below.) Vocational students proceed on to even more senior levels without testing.

Subjects spanned in the scholastic track include Literature; mathematics; English; science & modern technology (biology, chemistry, physics & earth scientific researches and technology); social studies; home economics & crafts; art; physical education and learning. At the finish of junior high, students on this track get involved in a nationwide, two-day exam that helps to recognize wbelow they attend high college.

In 2015, the MoE started requiring senior high institutions to admit at least 50 percent of students based on outcomes of the exam, which is referred to as the Comprehensive Assessment Program. (Prior to the redevelop, 61 percent of Taiwanese junior high students did not earn high sufficient scores to acquire placement in high college.) Under the redeveloped device, top scorers have actually the chance to take assessments readily available by specific high institutions that market specialized programs, commonly in either music or scientific research.

Subjects extended on the vocational track are governed by a technical curriculum dubbed the Practical Technical Program. The curriculum aligns with the scholastic track until the third year of junior high once technical training is introduced. Students on the vocational track can attend senior vocational college without any extra enattempt needs. They are not forced to examine English, math, or scientific research.

Senior High School

Three years of senior high college are now mandatory for Taiwanese students. Senior high college exoften tends from qualities 10 with 12. Like junior high, it contains either an scholastic track or a vocational track. Some students might opt to seek alternative second education and learning options dubbed bi-lateral high schools, thorough junior-senior high institutions, or junior colleges. These alternatives are outlined at the end of this section.

Academic senior high schools prepare students for better education. Much of the emphasis is on preparing for rigorous college entry exams. Senior high schools additionally encourage participation in extra-curricular tasks such as student cultures, non-governpsychological organizations, and also worldwide competitions, which likewise affect admissions right into better education and learning. (Admission to the the majority of competitive colleges was once governed totally by performance on standardized tests, but currently counts in component on involvement in such activities. University admission demands are disputed in higher information below.)In grade 12, students choose a specialization in either humanities/social sciences or engineering/herbal science.

Students that properly graduate from scholastic high colleges are awarded a Senior High School Leaving Certificate (Diploma).

Secondary vocational schools sell pathmeans to either employment or extra education and learning. Incoming students generally select a space of expertise, such as electrical or civil engineering, computer system scientific research, or service. The curricula typically involve general education and learning subjects, applicable technological and vocational topics, electives, and also team tasks. Students graduate through 162 credits and also the Senior Vocational School Certificate of Graduation (Diploma). Graduates of three-year vocational programs can choose to take the nationwide university entrance exams and go on to earn a four-year undergraduate degree. Senior vocational institutions administer fundamental technical abilities in industry, modern technology, business, marine commodities, farming, nursing and midwifery, house economics, opera, and also the arts.

Alternative Pathways

Comprehensive Secondary Education Options offer students different pathways with the final years of mandatory schooling. These include:

Bilateral high schools: These schools sell students the alternative of pursuing both technical/vocational and academic streams of education for the whole of their 3 years at the additional level.Comprehensive junior-senior schools: These schools allow students to complete both junior- and senior high education and learning at the exact same college, without sitting for examinations between cycles. The curriculum consists of Chinese, international languperiods, math, herbal scientific research, social scientific researches, art, physical education, company research studies, information handling, house economics, and also computer researches. The first year of the senior routine is pudepend academic. In the second year, students have the right to specialize in a vocational field and also proceed to go after an scholastic education. Students get a diploma, which does not indicate that they have actually stupassed away at a comprehensive junior-senior institution. Instead, it documents the topics studied and also any credits derived for vocational education and learning. This permits students to seek any kind of form of tertiary education and learning or employment.Junior Colleges: Junior colleges mid-level technical and managerial skills. In enhancement to a two-year track available to high institution graduates, they administer five-year programs open up to junior high college students who pass a nationwide examicountry. The initially 3 years are thought about senior second, and the last 2 years are post-additional. The initially 3 years of the curriculum parallel those of vocational colleges at the second level. The last two include more progressed materials. Students graduate through the tantamount of an associate’s level and also are ready to enter the workforce. Some students might select to continue their studies at a two-year technical institute. Some might opt to deliver to a four-year university. The two-year pathmeans is explained listed below.)

Higher Education

University Admission

Prior to recreates in 2001, admission to tertiary research studies was based exclusively on the Joint College Entrance Examicountry (JUEE). In 2002, the development of a multi-channel admission procedure sneed to deemphasize JUEE performance as the single criteria for adgoals to colleges and universities. Under the current mechanism, all students seeking admission to colleges and also colleges sit for one or both of the following exams.

The Subject Competency Test, which consists of a number of 100-minute exams in topics extended by the basic academic senior curriculum. These encompass Chinese, English, math, and also organic and social sciences. Subject competency tests are taken in the time of the last semester of senior institution studies.The Designated Subject(s) Examination, which is based on the JUEE and aims to test the depth of knowledge in specific specialties (1-3 subjects). This exam is frequently taken in July.

The multi-channel framework includes a number of paths for admission:

Performance-based, as identified by a mix of results on both Subject Competency Tests and the Designated Subject(s) Examination.Recommendation- and performance-based. In this scenario, high institutions recommfinish students to one university faculty of the students’ alternative. Students then sit for the Subject Competency Test. Faculty select students based upon their test results, and, in some cases, an interwatch or extra assessments.Self-selection. Students may additionally apply to certain faculties independently of their high institutions. The procedure for the recommendation- and also performance-based pathmethod (as described above) uses.Technical and also Vocational Higher Education

Technical and vocational programs are available at area colleges, junior colleges, and also institutes of technology. The Department of Technological and also Vocational Education in the Minisattempt of Education is responsible for administering technical and also vocational education and learning at both the senior-secondary level, and also for post-second education and learning.

Community colleges are a relatively brand-new phenomenon in Taiwan. Taiwan’s first neighborhood college – Taipei Wenshan Community College – was established in 1998. The goal of community colleges is to expand accessibility to tertiary studies to anyone and also everyone, consisting of adults with limited additional qualifications, and also admission is essentially open up. County and municipal authorities regulate the colleges and handle resources, supply of teachers, curriculum, and enrollments.Junior colleges: At the post-additional level, junior colleges market two-year programs that train students for positions as mid-level technicians and also supervisors. (They additionally offer five-year programs, as described over, that are open up to qualified junior high graduates.) Subjects spanned incorporate sector, commerce, medicine, marine sources, languperiods, house economics, tourism, and hospitality. Students graduate via a Certificate of Graduation or Diploma equivalent to a U.S. associate degree. Students who finish a two-year junior college routine may likewise opt to deliver to the last two years of an undergraduate regimen in the very same or equivalent field.Some opt to pursue better education and learning at institutes of technology or colleges of innovation.Others opt to take a carry exam to enter continuous colleges and colleges. They need to transfer 80 credits from junior college and earn 72 more for the bachelor’s level.National institutes of technology sell two-year programs for graduates from junior colleges and also four-year bachelor’s degree programs. Four-year programs are commonly for senior high and also vocational institution graduates and also offer detailed project and also vocational training. Institutes of modern technology likewise offer graduate-level programs. All national institutes of innovation are public. Some exclusive four-year institutes have additionally gotten in the area, and sell bachelor and also graduate degrees.Academic Education – Undergraduate

Bachelors’ degrees are frequently completed within 4 years. Students might be granted extensions of as much as 2 years to meet their demands. Bachelors’ degrees are readily available by:

universitiesfour-year collegesinstitutes of technologyuniversities of technology

The routine of examine for a bachelor’s level is structured a lot like it is in the United States, with the initially two years constituting basic education and also an introduction to topics in a student’s meant area of expertise. The last 2 years are commonly scheduled for even more advanced coursework-related in the student’s location of field of expertise. A minimum of 128 credits is the minimum required to graduate, although a lot of programs call for between 132 and 175 credits.

Some specialized undergraduate programs need additional credits and time to complete.

Bachelor of Fine Arts degrees deserve to take between 4 and 5 years to earn.Dentistry programs are 6 years in size.Medical degrees call for between salso and also eight years of study.Architecture and veterinary science degrees commonly take five years.Like medication, regulation is an undergraduate degree. The routine generally lasts four years.Academic Education – Graduate

Master’s degree programs need one to four years of examine, although the traditional is 2 years. Typically, programs require a mix of courseoccupational, 24 credit hours, examinations, and also a thesis. Students take core and elective courses, the exact mix of which will differ depending on the discipline. Students should additionally satisfy a minimum expertise necessity in English and also a second foreign language.

Entrance to doctdental programs is generally based on a master’s degree, though some programs admit bachelor’s degree holders. Doctoral programs last 2 to salso years, depending on the admission need. They encompass a period of a full-time course load, and an additional study period, which culminates in a thesis.

Teacher Education

Qualified teachers at the pre-school, major, and secondary-level are compelled to host a four-year teacher education and learning degree. These programs are available at both public and private institutions. Pre-school and also major teachers are typically instructed at teacher’s colleges, while additional college teachers are trained at universities.

Teacher-training programs are typically four-year and also permanent. They yield in between 128 and also 148 credits and also are followed by a six-month internship. After completing the internship, graduates are awarded the Qualified Teacher Certificate. In order to be well-known, they should sit for the Minisattempt of Education’s Teacher Qualification Exam.

The regime of study at teacher training programs typically has basic education courses, pedagogical study, and classes pertinent to topic specializations.

Students have the right to likewise take a two-year teaching regimen at a teachers’ college if they have a two-year junior college teaching qualification.

Grading Scales



Funded by the Ministry, the Higher Education Evaluation and also Accreditation Council of Taiwan was establiburned in 2005 to act as a top quality assurance body. The Council oversees current testimonial mechanisms, evaluates university administration, and also develops experienced testimonial criteria to ensure objectivity and credibility within the device.

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Required Documents Checklist

World Education Services needs the adhering to files from Taiwanese students as soon as evaluating second and also post-additional credentials:

Secondary EducationClear, legible photocopy of graduation certificate or diploma issued in English by the institution attended to be submitted to by the applicant.Academic transcripts issued in English by the school attended, submitted to by the institution attended.Higher EducationClear, legible photocopies of all graduation certificates or diplomas issued in English by the institutions attended to be submitted to by institutions attended.Academic transcripts issued in English by the establishments attended for all post-second programs of examine, and a letter confirming awarding of doctdental program level to be submitted to by institutions attfinished.
Sample Documents: Taiwan

This file of Sample Documents (pdf) reflects the complying with set of annotated credentials from the Taiwanese education and learning system:

Associate of Arts level certificate from National Taipei College of BusinessBachelor of Science degree certificate from National Chiao Tung UniversityAcademic transcripts for the Bachelor of Science degree from National Chiao Tung UniversityMaster of Science level certificate from National Taiwan UniversityAcademic transcripts for the Master of Science degree from National Taiwan UniversityHigh School DiplomaHigh college transcriptsBachelor of Arts degree certificate from Shih Hsin UniversityAcademic transcripts for the Bachelor of Arts level from Shih Hsin University