It takes a details amount of warm energy or thermal power to turn ice into water and also water right into vapor.

You are watching: To melt 50 g of 0°c ice requires

When you warm a product, you are adding thermal kinetic energy to its molecules and also normally increasing its temperature. The only exception is as soon as the product reaches its melting suggest or boiling point. At those two temperatures, the warm energy goes right into altering the state or phase of the product. After the state has actually adjusted, the temperature will certainly rise aobtain via included thermal power.

The price temperature transforms is the certain warm of the product. The amount of energy compelled to melt the material is dubbed the latent heat of melting. This all have the right to be portrayed in reflecting how much warmth is compelled to adjust ice right into water and then readjust the water right into heavy steam.

Questions you may have actually include:

What units of measurement are used in turning ice into steam? How is specific warm used? How is latent warmth used?

This leschild will answer those concerns. Useful tool: Units Conversion

Units of measurement

Since we are measuring the amount of warmth forced to make these alters, we must know the meanings of the miscellaneous systems involved.

Heat transfer

Heat is the complete kinetic power of all the molecules in an item. Although power is typically measured in joules, a more widespread unit for warmth is the calorie, which is identified as the amount of heat required to readjust the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 Celsius degree. Tright here is a conversion variable to relate joules to calories, however we will not worry about that here.

Note: Calories are abbreviated as cal and grams as g. Also, oC means levels Celsius.

In the English measurement system, they usage the BTU (British thermal unit), which is the amount of warmth compelled to adjust the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 Fahrenheit degree. The BTU is viewed in the United States as soon as referring to the capacity of a heater.

Specific heat

Materials differ in their capacity to keep thermal energy. For example, a product choose iron will certainly warmth up much much faster than water or hardwood. The measurement of exactly how a lot warmth is compelled to adjust the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree is dubbed its particular heat.

Tbelow are charts available listing the specific heat of miscellaneous products. The chart below shows the specific warm of ice, water and steam in devices of calorie per gram-degree Celsius.

(Note that all items are noted with the same variety of decimal points. That shows the same accuracy for each. Also, the zero in front of the decimal suggest assures that the reader will know it is a decimal suggest and also not a fly speck.)

State of water Specific warmth in cal/g-oC







Specific heat of assorted states of water

In various other words, it would take twice as many type of calories to warmth some water one level than it would certainly to warmth the exact same mass of ice one level.

Latent heat

When any material is heated to the temperature where it transforms state, the temperature will certainly remajor the exact same till all the product changes state. That implies ice water will certainly remajor at 0oC (32oF) till all the ice is melted. The exact same thing uses when cooling the products.

The reason is that energy need to be expfinished to adjust the state from solid to liquid or from liquid to gas. Likewise, power should be withdrawn to change the state when cooling the material. The amount of energy compelled is contact the latent heat of freezing or boiling. The chart below mirrors the latent heat or energy compelled to change the states of water.

Change of state of water Latent warmth in cal/g

Melting / Freezing


Boiling / Condensation


Latent heat forced to change state of water


A excellent method to understand also the principles is to deal with a difficulty.

Suppose we have 50g of ice at -10oC. We desire to warm the product until it all turns to steam at 110oC. How much warm is required?

With a problem that is facility choose this one, it is good to break it dvery own right into pieces and settle each component individually. This likewise helps to define the logic offered in the solution.

1. Heating ice

How much heat would certainly be compelled to raise 50g of ice to its melting point?

The ice temperature have to be increased 10 levels to reach 0oC.

Because the specific heat of ice is 0.50 cal/g-oC, that suggests that 0.50 calories is required to raise 1g of ice 1oC. Hence, it would certainly take 50 x 0.50 calories to raise 50g up 1oC and 10 x 50 x 0.50 = 250 cal to raise the ice to its melting point.

2. Melting ice

How much warm would be required to melt the 50g of ice?

The latent heat for melting ice is 80 cal/g. That means that 1g of ice calls for 80 cal of warmth to melt.

Therefore, 50g needs 50 x 80 = 4000 cal to melt.

3. Heating water

How much heat is required to heat 50g of water from 0oC to its boiling suggest of 100oC?

Due to the fact that the certain warmth of water is 1.00 cal/g-oC, that suggests that 1.00 calorie is required to raise 1g of water 1oC. Therefore, it would take 50 x 1.00 calories to raise 50g up 1oC and 100 x 50 x 1.00 = 5000 cal to raise the water to its boiling allude.

4. Boiling water

How much warmth would certainly be required to boil the 50g of water?

The latent heat for boiling water is 540 cal/g. That means that 1g of water needs 540 cal of heat to boil.

Thus, 50g needs 50 x 540 = 27000 cal to boil.

5. Heating steam

How a lot warm is required to heat 50g of heavy steam from 100oC to 110oC?

Due to the fact that the certain heat of steam is 0.48 cal/g-oC, that indicates that 0.48 calories are essential to raise 1g up 1oC. Therefore, it would certainly take 50 x 0.48 calories to raise 50g of steam 1oC and also 10 x 50 x 0.48 = 240 cal to raise the temperature of the vapor to 110oC.

6. Total

The total heat forced to change 50g of ice at -10oC to heavy steam at 110oC is:

250 + 4000 + 5000 + 27000 + 240 = 36490 cal.


Heating materials choose ice, water and steam increases their temperature. The certain warmth of the product determines the calories compelled to warmth one unit of mass one level.

Changing the state of the product requires extra warmth energy that is not supplied to change the temperature. The amount of heat forced to change the state of the material is referred to as its latent warmth. The facility difficulty of determining how much heat is required to readjust ice into water and also then adjust the water into vapor should be broken into parts and solved individually.

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Heat up your thinking

Resources and references

Ron Kurtus" Credentials


Specific Heat Equations - Wolfram Science World

Physics Resources


(Notice: The School for Champions might earn comobjectives from book purchases)

Top-rated books on Thermal Energy


Top-rated books on Physics of Temperature


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