I FIRST CONTACT

One fine June afternoon in 1598, 5 ships in Rotterdam ready their leave for a lengthy journey. The crew have actually been told that their location will certainly be the Moluccas to buy flavors, and to check out the "Silver-rycke" (the Silver Empire) of Japan. But when out on the high seas, the sailors of the five vessels, which are greatly loaded via weaponry, are increated of their added jobs - to raid and plunder Portuguese and Spanish strongholds along the route in South America and also Asia and to wreak damage on their enemies, understandable objectives in those stormy times.

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The journey verified a historic one. The first Dutch ship ever to arrive in Japan was the "Liefde " ("Charity" or "Love"); it was among the 5 that initially left Rotterdam on June 27, 1598, and also the just one to arrive safely in Japan - on April 19, 1600. "T Gheloove "("Faith") had actually turned ago for Rotterdam before entering the Straits of Magellan. The other 3 had actually been lost; the " Blijde Bootschap " ("Good Message") in fights with the Spaniards, " Trouwe" ("Faithfulness") to the Portuguese and "Hoope" (Hope) to storm.

On April 19, 1600, for the people living in Sashifu, in the Bungo location (nowadays Usuki in Oita Prefecture), the check out out to sea was various from normal days, for a ship strangely shaped and rigged lay at anchor. While the initially friendly Japanese helped the totally exhausted Dutch crew (which included at least one Englishman), they surrendered to the exceptionally normal temptations of that duration to take from the vessel whatever they could remove. The Liefde lugged 19 canon, many rifles, fire-arrows and also assorted weaponry. Of the originally 110 man crew only 24 had survived the journey. Among them were Jan Joosten van Lodensteyn, that would certainly later be recognized as Yaesu-san, and also the Englishmale William Adams, who would be called Miura Anjin in later on days. The figure-head of the Liefde, representing Dutch scholar and also theorist Erasmus, deserve to still be seen at the National Museum in Tokyo.

The military ruler of Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu, showed good interemainder in the Dutch ship, particularly in the guns it was carrying. Everything was confiscated and also Joosten and Adams were ordered to Osaka and then to Eexecute, the center of power (contemporary Tokyo), to be interrogated through a Portuguese interpreter. Their replies luckily showed to the liking of Ieyasu and the survivors were compensated for the losses they suffered in Usuki. Some of them began careers as traders and married regional womales. Their useful know-exactly how and also knowledge of maps, navigating, shipstructure and also warfare made William Adams and also Jan Joosten famous via the leader. It lugged them land, money and titles. 

Today's Tokyo boasts Anjin-dori (Anjin-street) and also the Yaesu Exit of Tokyo terminal to remind us of the lengthy remote duty of these two sailor adventurers. One critically necessary consequence was that the Dutch obtained main permission to trade via Japan, though it was to be almost a decade before this started up in earnest. The first Dutch ships after the `Liefde` arrived in Hirado in 1609.

Tokugawa Ieyasu made use of the arrival of the Dutch for one more factor. The ruler had actually just began his project versus Christianity because of the over-enthusiastic proselytising of Portuguese Jesuits threatening his authority, and also the understanding of the "red haired barbarians", as the Dutch came to be referred to as, would prove useful. The protestant Dutch, whose first objective was profession and not the propagation of the Christian confidence, had actually arrived and establiburned their credibility just in time. This is just how the special connection between Japan and the Netherlands started.

II THE JAPANESE-DUTCH RELATIONSHIP

The Portuguese had first arrived in Japan in 1543, so contacts between Japan and also the Netherlands were not the oldest and longest Japan had actually delighted in via a western country. Contacts through Eastern nations such as Korea, China and also Taiwan naturally went ago to much previously times. However before, throughout the `sakoku-jidai`, the so-dubbed seclusion duration, Holland also and China were the only nations permitted to trade and also have actually limited contacts through Japan. It was a standing which actually lasted over 2 centuries, from 1641 to 1853, and as the just western country through such privileges, Holland hosted an extremely unique position. It was the door with which expertise on scientific research and medication, and also assets and also armaments from the Netherlands and also Europe were imported into Japan via the Dutch negotiation on Deshima, the man-made fan-shaped island also in the Bay of Nagasaki. Simultaneously the Dutch produced excellent wide range exporting Japanese commodities and expertise to the west. For both sides, Deshima was more than simply a window on a brand-new people.

III THE DUTCH TRADING HOUSE IN HIRADO, 1609-1641

The Dutch received a permit to profession from Tokugawa Ieyasu, who in 1603 had bestowed upon himself the title of Shogun. In 1605, as soon as some survivors of the `Liefde` came down on a Japanese junk in Pattani in Thailand, this 'trade pass' was conveyed to Captain Matelieff - the uncle of Quaeckernaeck, one of the 'Liefde's' survivors. A short time prior to, in 1602, the Dutch had actually founded the East Indian Company type of (VOC), the principle behind this being to unite many type of smaller sized trading providers into the one powerful organisation which would certainly make it simpler to gain vessels and overcome the trading human being. The VOC deserve to be seen as the world's initially shareholder firm. Besides trading, the Dutch government authorized the VOC to initiate contacts via international 'authorities'. A second trade permit received proclaimed that the Dutch were to be enabled to trade in all Japanese ports and expressed the hope that many Dutch ships would execute so. This document is today in the National Archives in the Hague. The Dutch were initially able to comply with Tokugawa`s really hopes in 1609, as soon as 2 ships developed the first main Dutch VOC delegation to Japan. They arrived in Hiraexecute and also after presentation of an official letter from Maurits, Prince of Orange, the Dutch obtained main permission to open a trading post. This first trading write-up was started by Jacques Specx on the island of Hiraexecute on the north-west coastline of Kyushu. Hirado was a convenient place for trade via Taiwan and China, however did not overly impress the Dutch because a lot of well-off vendors resided in nearby Nagasaki.

In the duration 1600-1641, the Dutch might relocate around the nation freely and also enjoyed unminimal contact through the Japanese. In Hiracarry out they set up a foundry and also built a well. They were impressed by the high quality and also competence of Japanese craftsmales, who were frequently hired by the Dutch. However before, in the beforehand period profession was not profitable because of the limited contacts through various other VOC outwrite-ups. In addition, the Dutch had actually no trading centre in China and also were thus not able to supply the Japanese with silk. This trouble was addressed by piracy of heavily loaded Portuguese trading ships. The Portuguese understandably complained and the Japanese federal government responded by banning piracy in Japanese waters. The hazards of interference led to the Shogun to slowly use a stricter policy in contacts with foreigners, both the Southern Barbarians (Portuguese) and also the Red-Haired Barbarians (Dutch). In 1614 Tokugawa Ieyasu issued a ban on Christianity and also evicted missionaries and also influential Japanese Christians from Japan. This ban was strictly imposed and many kind of Japanese Christians were martyred and had to flee or hide. In 1621 Japanese subjects were forbidden to leave the country and also board foreign vessels without unique passes, and shortly after that all departures from the nation were forbidden. In 1639 the children of international fathers and also Japanese mothers were compelled to leave and the daughter of Dutch head seller Van Nijenroode of Hirado had to leave for Batathrough, current day Jakarta in Indonesia. Such kids were not allowed to have actually call via the Japanese anyeven more - a judgment which brought about tearful scenes as soon as they had actually to be parted from their mothers. The Hirado City Museum screens a poignant letter of the time composed on kimono-silk, the so referred to as Jagatara-bun by Koshioro. After 1657 the Japanese government tranquil the rules rather and family members news ('onshin') was permitted. Cornelia van Nijenroode wrote `onshin` to her family in Hiraperform, which are still kept in Hiraexecute.

To limit contacts of the Portuguese through the Japanese, the shogunate chose to develop a unique island for them. Its name was Deshima , and also Portuguese resided here from 1636 to 1639, once they were required out of the country on suspicion of support to the Christian rebels throughout the Shimabara revolt. The Dutch had unefficiently battled on the Shogun`s side, and also had stressed numerous times that they might carry out the Japanese with all the goods that the Portuguese had actually formerly offered. "Rain on the Portuguese indicates drizzles on the Dutch" was a Dutch saying of the time. With Deshima vacant, the shogunate found ways to restrict the flexibility of motion of the Dutch. In 1640 they lastly uncovered a great factor to confine the Dutch to Deshima. Head seller Francois Caron had actually two wareresidences developed of stone to prevent loss by fire - a common hazard in those days. Below the roof arch, following European practice, the words `Anno 1640` were engraved to display the year of completion. Mentioning the Christian day proved an insensitive mistake. The Dutch had to tear the warehomes dvery own and move to Deshima. The Shogun`s decree intended the Dutch left Hirado in 1641. From then on for even more than 200 years Holland also would be the only western country permitted to have actually call through Japan and also the Japanese.

IV 1641-1853: THE DUTCH IN DESHIMA

Rereal estate the Dutch trading short article on Deshima had actually the unexpected impact of widening the profile of the Dutch fairly than restricting it. This fan shaped island also in Nagasaki bay measured however 15,000 square meters (roughly 150,000 square feet), around the dimension of Dam Square in Amsterdam. It intended the Dutch came to be Japan's home window on the world. Western sciences and products were introduced to the Japanese and contacts brought about so-referred to as `Rangaku` or Dutch Learning. The most renowned teacher is Philip Franz von Siebold, of Gerguy origin, who taught many scholars about western scientific research, medication and also various other matters of social worth. Many kind of loan words from the Dutch gotten in the Japanese language; for instance "biiru" - the Japanese word for beer - was acquired from the Dutch word "bier".

In the conmessage of limited contacts in between Japanese and also foreigners, the Dutch had actually to live under strict rules. They can not leave without main permission and Deshima was prohibited for woguys. An exception was produced the public womales of Murayama district, who were enabled to remain one night at a time on the island. Permission to leave the island was just granted for official visits to the governor or the Shogun, the so-dubbed "Edo Sanpu" or court journey to Eexecute. So life was not ideal for the Dutch. Many of the time in a person's year was invested idle. Only the arrival of ships, largely in the duration August to October, was a busy time. The vessels had to be unloaded, cargoes unpacked, repacked, and also traded. The ships had to be reloaded through Japanese items for the affluent merchant traders of the VOC. It was the moment for stories and also messperiods from home.

Right now federal government regulations made service less profitable than it had been at the end of the Hirado period, as soon as complimentary trading was permitted. Goods had to be marketed at addressed prices determined upon in development. Maximum prices for import and export items were collection, and also items which remained unsold had actually to be taken back. But in spite of all these regulations, the VOC still made profits and also ongoing to trade largely silk for gold, silver, copper and also camphor. Also lacqueroccupational, porcelain and tea were bought and also exported to Bataby means of or Europe.

Contrary to what one might conclude, Deshima was a popular posting among VOC employees. One reason for this was that the Japanese Government, next to the official trade, gave permission for limited individual trading as well, a privilege which provided employees via additional income periodically getting to levels of even more than 20 times their normal annual salary. The "opperhoofd", whose salary was 1200 guilders a year, was taped as making as a lot as 30.000 guilders.

For political reasons, both in Japan and Europe, earnings and profession on Deshima deteriorated in the 18th century. The Japanese authorities set out brand-new regulations on such affairs as the numbers of ships allowed and the exchange price between silver and gold - initiatives that minimal profits for the trading Dutch. This was the era of the French Radvancement and also the loss of the when mighty Dutch command also of the seas. Between 1795 and also 1813 few VOC vessels managed to reach Deshima as a result of which VOC employees shed revenue. Opperhoofd Hendrik Doeff became dependent on the kindness of the Japanese for food and also clothing. But Doeff did not waste his time. He continued his composing of a Dutch-Japanese dictionary and also invested special initiatives in keeping great relations through the Japanese authorities. Doeff retained the Dutch flag flying in Deshima: the only one left in the civilization.

V LEARNING FROM THE DUTCH: RANGAKU

In the 16th century the "lingua franca" of trading through the Japanese had been Portuguese, and initially contacts between the Dutch and the Japanese were carried out with a Portuguese interpreter. After the Portuguese were expelled, the Dutch language progressively took over and the duty of translator and interpreter became critically important. Positions were hereditary, through Japanese interpreters for the Dutch ending up being recognized as "Oranda Tsuji". Racount exceeding 150 in number they were in charge of the management of trade, diplomacy and cultural extransforms. "Oranda Tsuji" played an important function in the propagation of the western sciences. As the competence of the interpreters boosted, so it came to be clear to the Japanese ruling course that the westerners had impressive, and helpful, expertise in many areas.

In 1720, the eighth Shogun, Yoshimune, lifted the ban on western books, except for Christian spiritual literary works, and also quickly after clinical books started to be imported right into Japan. Study via the Dutch language was dubbed "Rangaku", or Dutch Learning, and scholars such as Sugita Genpaku accomplished impressive results. The "Ontleedkundige Tafelen" , a thostormy job-related on anatomy by the Germale Kulmus, was interpreted in 1771-1774 as the "Kaitai Shinsho". About the difficulties of translating this work, Sugita Genpaku created the "Rangaku Kotohajime " (Beginnings of Dutch Learning). These 2 books ended up being the fundamental research products of many type of Rangaku institutions in Japan. Of these colleges the Narutaki Juku, established by Von Siebold in Nagasaki, Shiranperform in Ecarry out by Otsuki Gentaku and also Tekijuku, establiburned by Ogata Koan in Osaka were the most famed. Beside clinical scientific research the subjects of astronomy, math, botany kind of, physics and also chemistry, location and army scientific research were proactively stupassed away.

Providing the Japanese with indevelopment on western sciences confirmed an important job for the VOC and resulted in many academics being sent to Japan. Caspar Schambergen offered his name to the clinical "Kasuparu-Ryu" or Caspar School. Hendrik Doeff edited the "Zufu Haruma", a Dutch-Japanese dictionary based upon that of Francois Halma, and also he also wrote Japanese poetry. Cock Blomhoff collected Japanese artefacts and family members products. The most famed "Dutch" intellectual export was generally taken into consideration to be Philip Franz von Siebold. The Gerguy Von Siebold was sent to Japan in 1823 via the mission to get as a lot indevelopment around Japan, the world and also their society as feasible. Through his thounstable knowledge of botany kind of, clinical sciences and pharmacy, he became the the majority of revered VOC employee of his time in business of the Japanese and also Dutch alike. He was offered land also near Nagasaki, wbelow he established the institution Narutaki Juku. Here he treated patients, taught clinical science and also biology, and also preserved a botanical garden. Thstormy his many kind of contacts with scholars, patients and also authorities, he had the ability to collect vast numbers of artifacts of Japanese life.

Amongst goods received in exadjust for his teaching solutions, was a kimono with the circular family crest of the Tokugawa Shogun family members, and also "secret" maps of Japan, normally strictly forbidden to foreigners. He was uncovered out, and also banned for life under suspicion of being a spy. Many type of of his Japanese friends and also students had actually to pay for this acquaintance through their resides. His 1829 eviction became known as the "Siebold Incident". He left his wife and also daughter Oine, who inevitably ended up being Japan's initially female clinical physician. His vast collection of artifacts is currently at the National Museum of Ethnology in Leiden.

VI THE COURT JOURNEY

Contacts between the Dutch and Japanese authorities additionally took location in the time of the annual 'court journey'. Just like regional Japanese leaders, the Dutch Opperhoofd from Deshima had to pay annual tribute to the Shogun in Edo and carry out a thorough report on affairs in the outside world, the so-dubbed `fusetsu gaki`. On this annual epic journey that can take up to 3 months, the Opperhoofd was typically accompanied by the VOC surgeon and some employees in addition to the Oranda-Tsuji and also civil servants of the Nagasaki authorities - a full of some 150 to 200 persons. The procession via the `Red Haired Barbarians` attracted many kind of curious onlookers - the expedition was known as the `Edo Sanpu` and also completed some 170 times. Partly over land also to Shimonoseki in north Kyushu, the mission continued by watercraft to the Hyogo/Osaka location and also then on to Eperform using the Tokaido-route.

A emotional reminder of this journey is the grave of Opperhoofd Gijsbrecht Hemmij in the little city of Kakegawa, Shizuoka Prefecture, dated 1798, which was recovered through funding from the City of Kakegawa and also the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 2005.

The visit to the Shogun mandated many kind of unique and also expensive presents. Telescopes, clinical instruments, medications, canons, globes, exotic animals such as zebras, camels and primates were all examples of gifts presented to the Shogun and also various other high ranking officials. Scientific books were particularly renowned. In 1638 a beautiful copper "grand also chandelier" via wax candles was presented to mitigate diplomatic tensions. It have the right to still be viewed in the Tosho-gu shrine in Nikko, the mausoleum of Tokugawa Ieyasu. In rerevolve the Dutch typically received expensive silk kimonos.

VII IMPACT ON THE ARTS

The visibility of the Dutch in Deshima and also their passing by while traveling the Ecarry out Sanpu also had a perceptible effect on Japanese artists. Life on Deshima was the template of many Nagasaki-e , or Nagasaki prints, bought as souvenirs by Japanese tourists visiting Nagasaki. Dutch figures were likewise painted on porcelain. Paintings and also books brought from Holland also influenced many regional artists. Shiba Kokan painted Dutch landscapes he had never seen himself, possibly the reason for the existence of hills in some of his paintings. Kawahara Keiga was the individual assistant to Von Siebold and also his paintings give a in-depth summary of life on Deshima at the beginning of the 19th century.

Wonderful collections of Nagasaki-e, porcelain decorated with Dutch numbers and also other Dutch-associated art have the right to this day be checked out in the Nagasaki Prefectural Museum, Nagasaki Municipal Museum and the Kobe City Museum .

VIII THE LATE EDO PERIOD

Throughout the 1ninth century the world's political case progressively changed. Holland also had lost its dominance of the seas, and also the power of America and England was increasing. During the opium war (1839-1842) England also forced China to open five ports for worldwide profession and also to cede Hong Kong. Von Siebold, that after his eviction from Japan had actually been living and also doing research in Holland, advised Dutch King Willem II to inform the Shogun of the war's outcome and to advise him to voluntarily open up Japan to foreign countries. Willem II wrote a "Royal Letter", which was handed over after a parade and ceremony in 1844 to the Nagasaki authorities. Though the Japanese government rejected the advice it was grateful for the friendly gesture.

The Dutch government warned the Shogun as soon as more through Donker Curtius, who was appointed "Opperhoofd" of Deshima specifically for this objective. In 1852 he increated the Shogun that the Americans had actually plans to open up up Japanese ports by force. The Japanese did not take the advice to heart and also retained the letter key - the 1853 arrival of Commodore Perry`s "babsence ships" squadron have to not have come as the surpclimb it was.

IX THE MODERNIZATION OF JAPAN

The arrival of Commander Perry through his fleet in 1853 caused the opening up and also modernisation of Japan. In 50 years the nation adjusted from a feudal society to a modern western democracy. The exclusive function of the Dutch finished, though cshed contacts in between the two nations ongoing. In the beginning the Dutch language continued to be supplied in official contacts via foreign countries, so the initially contacts in between the Americans and also the Japanese had actually to be carried out in Dutch.The Japanese quickly taken the altering power balance in the world and also in order to capture up via the west, the Japanese government dispatched scholars to America and Europe. Western specialists were invited to Japan to help in modernising the nation. Help from the Netherlands was offered in shipbuilding and military scientific research, medicine and also pharmacy, and civil engineering.

Soon after the arrival of Commodore Perry, the Shogunate asked for Donker Curtius to supply steamships. The Dutch government presented the naval vessel "Soembing", recalled in Japanese "Kanko Maru". The maritime institution of Nagasaki was establimelted for the taking care of and also the maintenance of the ship and armaments. Commander Fabius of the Dutch navy and his crew, that cruised the ship to Japan, were the first teachers, and also Katsu Kaishu one of their students. After evaluating the accomplishments of the "Kanko Maru", the Japanese government ordered a second ship. Originally named "Japan", it was renamed on its arrival in Japan into "Kanrin Maru" and also was later sairesulted in America by Katsu Kaishu. Aboard the "Japan" were first engineer Hardes and clinical physician Pompe van Meerdervoort. Hardes became the founder of the initially ship repair yard and steam engineering manufacturing facility, out of which human being course shiphome builders Mitsubishi would be born. Pompe van Meerdervoort adhered to in the footsteps of Von Siebold and also established the initially modern western hospital in Nagasaki. He in his rotate was shortly thereafter followed by A.F. Bauduin, C.G. Mansvelt, K.W. Gratama and A.C.J. Geerts, that all played a function in the breakthrough of a modern-day medical education and learning mechanism. They are responsible for the starting of the medical faculty at Osaka College. Gratama is revered as the founder of the "seimi kyoku", which was the first chemistry laboratory in Japan. Also a "seimi kyoku" was establiburned in Kyoto and also this one was the predecessor of the faculty of chemistry of the Kyoto University. Words "seimi" is directly acquired from the Dutch word for chemistry "chemie". Gratama and also his students arisen the alloy offered for coins of the initially contemporary Japanese money.

X DUTCH CIVIL ENGINEERS IN THE MEIJI PERIOD

Perhaps the many visible traces were left by the Dutch civil engineers invited by the Japanese federal government to assist in addressing the challenges of flooding in mountainous Japan. Dutch civil designers were likewise invited to aid in building and developing the country's ports. C.J. van Doorn was the first. He designed an irrigation canal in Fukushima Prefecture, which later on earned him a bronze statue of recognition, conserved by local civilization from conversion into bulallows in the second human being battle. At the research of the Japanese federal government, Van Doorn invited more designers to sign up with him including Johannis de Rijke, that did not have an academic degree however that had learnt his profession in tough practice, and also G.A. Escher, father of artist M.C. Escher, well-known global for his intriguing drawings. M.C. Escher was shelp to have been strongly influenced by the ukiyoe prints his father carried residence from Japan. Johannis de Rijke turned out to be a terrific choice. He continued to be in Japan for more than 30 years and also inevitably ended up being Vice Minister - most likely the just foreigner ever to reach such high rank. His superior achievements had riverfinancial institution enhancements of the Yodogawa river in Osaka Prefecture, and also the Kiso Sansen in main Japan - a room in which 3 rivers via different flows converged and consistently caused heavy flooding. De Rijke offered methods such as groynes, debris obstacles and also planting trees to mitigate run-off erosion also though the absence of mountains in his house nation had actually denied him the experience of structure a corrosion dam. He also designed many kind of of Japan's modern ports, consisting of that of Osaka, Nagasaki and Yokohama. In total 12 Dutch civil designers pertained to Japan in this duration to encertain "dry feet" for the regional civilization.

Besides inviting Dutch specialists to Japan, the Meiji government additionally sent out Japanese scholars to the Netherlands. Nishi Amane and Tsuda Mamichi were sent out to Leiden University and also Fukuzawa Yukichi saw Holland for examine.

In the period following the opening of Japan, diplomatic contacts were formalised. The first Dutch Consulate was opened in 1859 in Yokohama, followed by a legation in Tokyo and a consulate in Kobe in 1868. Notwithstanding the contacts across many type of various fields and the long background of mutual teamwork they would unfortunately not sheight battle from breaking out between the two nations in Indonesia.

XI THE WAR, 1942-1945 

World War II was the first and also just break in the friendly contacts in between Japan and the Netherlands. With the aim of securing raw materials and producing a Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Spbelow, Japan got into Indonesia on 10 January 1942. This then Dutch swarm was wealthy in raw materials from oil and also rubber to pepper and spices. After two months of fighting the Royal Netherlands Indian Army capitulated. Some 40,000 Dutch soldiers were taken captive and sent to prisoner of war camps. Many in the civilian area were sent to work camps everywhere Japan, some as much amethod as Hokkaicarry out and also Nagasaki, and to mines in North Kyushu.

The Japanese occupation of Indonesia finally caused that country's freedom. After the battle the Netherlands shed its standing as major colonial power, and also Japan was occupied by American forces till 1951. Old historical contacts had been upcollection. The battle still exerts affect on the connections between the 2 nations.

XII PRESENT DAY RELATIONS BETWEEN JAPAN AND THE NETHERLANDS, 1945 to the present

Ratification of the tranquility treaty through Japan in 1952 resulted in the normalisation of relationships and regeneration of diplomatic ties. But the exclusive and also prominent role of the Netherlands was now a point of the past. To most Japanese the Netherlands ended up being just one more European country. Economic, social and clinical contacts started abrand-new in the direction of the end of the fifties. KLM Royal Dutch Airlines opened continuous flights. Philips was important in the success of the Matsushita Electric Industrial Company kind of. Cut flowers significantly discovered their method into the hands of the flower-loving Japanese public. In the sixties, social contacts grew. The Royal Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra pleased Japanese ears. Exhibitions of works by Van Gogh and Rembrandt attracted many type of visitors. "Rangaku" was followed by contacts between many kind of colleges. It was, yet, possibly a sporting event that put the Netherlands back on the Japanese map. At the 1964 Tokyo Olympics jucarry out was debuting as Olympic Sport, and also it was expected that Japanese athletes would make a clean sweep of the gold medals. But that was prior to Dutchman Anton Geesink beat Japanese champion Akio Kaminaga in the open-weight class. For the older generation, Geesink is still the best well-known Dutchguy.

In 1983 connections between the 2 countries got a boost with the opening of the "Holland also Village" template park near Nagasaki. A Dutch windmill was the begin. VOC ships, structures and also commodities adhered to, attracting many type of tourists. Gouda cheese and wooden shoes came to be well-known. Dutch children's writer and also illustrator Cock Bruna`s production "Nijntje", recognized to eincredibly Dutch perboy, captured the hearts of many kind of Japanese kids as "Miffy-chan". "Holland Village" was such a success that the management made a decision to expand also the task. The outcome was "Huis ten Bosch", which was opened in 1993. Named after the royal royal residence in the Hague, "Huis ten Bosch" surpassed "Holland Village" both in range and content. The idea of "Huis ten Bosch" was not simply the development of a template park, yet a actual village in which civilization could live, occupational and reap their leicertain. True scale copies of many type of well known Dutch structures encompass the royal residence Huis ten Bosch, that serves as a museum. Restaurants serve Dutch and European cuisine, and substantial collections of Dutch art deserve to be admired. Since the Dutch Royal Househost did not permit use of the very same paintings which might be found in the real royal residence, young Dutch artist Rob Scholte was invited to design the artwork-related for the main hall. "Apres nous le Deluge" is a beautiful piece of which "Huis ten Bosch" have the right to be proud.

Tright here are not just visible traces, but additionally many type of linguistic reminders of our long mutual history. Mostly "handed over" in the sakoku-jidai period, loan words from the Dutch are still used in existing day Japanese, many kind of possibly without the users being conscious of that truth. Biiru (beer), koohi (coffee), garasu (glass), pisutoru (pistol), orugoru (music box), otemba (tomboy) and literally translated words choose byouin (hospital), mouchou (appendix) and tansan (carbonic acid) are just a couple of examples of just how Dutch history plays a modest role in everyday Japanese life.

XIII COMMEMORATION OF 400 YEARS OF RELATIONS, 2000

In the year 2000, 400 years of connections were commemorated in Japan and also the Netherlands. In both countries committees were establimelted to prepare and also execute commemorative occasions. The Netherlands Embassy and also the Netherlands Consulate General in Osaka acted as representatives in Japan of the Dutch "Organisation for the Commemoration of 400 Years of Dutch-Japanese Relations". They operated in close teamwork with the Japanese committee headed by Dr. Taro Nakayama. During the year 2000 even more than 400 occasions took area in Japan. The events, varying from classical and also pop concerts, exhibitions on 17th century art as well as contemporary industrial architecture, to trade fairs and symposiums, presented the Netherlands in all its facets. One of the most vital events throughout the commemorative year was the "Holland Week" which began on April 19, 2000, the day the ship "Liefde" arrived in Japan 400 years previously. During this "Holland Week" the Dutch Crown Prince and also a huge number of VIPs from the Netherlands visited Usuki in Oita Prefecture, wright here our mutual history began, and also then headed for Nagasaki. The team also checked out Huis ten Bosch, Hiraexecute, the Kansai area and Tokyo.

In all these cities a vast variety of commemorative occasions took location, such as the opening of a component of the redeveloped trading post on Deshima (a Dutch settlement in Nagasaki that came to be Japan's single home window on the western world once Japan isolated itself from the remainder of the world), concerts by the Rotterdam Philharmonic Orchestra , the "De Rijke Symposium" on water administration, performances by the Netherlands Dance Theater, a visit by 4 vessels of the Royal Netherlands Navy and plenty of exhibitions and also other occasions.

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In 2008 Japan and the Netherlands commemorated that 150 years had actually passed considering that main diplomatic ties between the two countries were forged in 1858. In 2009 we celebrate the fact that 400 years ago formal commercial ties in between our two seafaring nations were establimelted. Commemorative occasions, both in the Netherlands and also in Japan, incorporate all facets of the arts, both contemporary and conventional, and also financial events and also scholastic exchanges. These two years have watched a string of high level visits, including many type of ministers in various areas. In the Netherlands, the formal celebration of the 400 years of bilateral profession took area in August 2009. The Dutch Prime Minister's vsist to Japan in October is to be the highlight of our commemorative events held in Japan.