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1 A phrase is a group of connected words that lacks both a subject and also a predicate. Due to the fact that it lacks a topic and also a predicate it cannot act as a sentence. A expression frequently functions as a solitary component of speech in a sentence (e.g., noun, adjective, adverb). Tright here are five forms of phrases: 1. Prepositional phrases, which start via a preposition and include the object of the preplace. 2. Participial phrases, which start with the participle and encompass the object of the participle or other words that are linked to the noun by the participle. 3. Gerund phrases, which begin via the gerund and also encompass the object of the gerund or other words that are acting as the finish topic or complete object. 4. Infinitive phrases, which start through an infinitive and also incorporate the object of the infinitive or other words that are acting as component of the phrase. 5. Appositive phrases, which are nouns or pronouns including even more information to another noun or pronoun in the sentence.

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2 Prepositions A preposition is a word that web links a noun or pronoun complying with it to one more word in the sentence. about behind around versus across as of external dvery own except yet by on over of prior to past during despite for onto at A noun or pronoun always adheres to a preposition. A prepositional expression is a preplace and also its object (remember, objects are always nouns or pronouns). on the wing in the door close to the violently swaying oak trees on account of his nearly-depleted financial institution account

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3 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES The prepositional phrase has the preposition and the object of the preposition and any modifiers regarded either.prepositionobject of the preposition The flying saucer appeared above the lake prior to it disappeared into space. –ABOVE is not an adverb bereason it has an object to complete its meaning; therefore, ABOVE is a preplace and the whole phrase is an adverb phrase. Crystal can hear her sister snoring across the room. –Objects commonly answer the question what. Therefore, we deserve to ask across what? to identify the object of the preplace. Christine found a pile of books covert under the stairsituation. –UNDER is not an adverb bereason it alone does not answer where around the verb. You should think about analysis the notes prior to course. –BEFORE is not an adverb because it alone does not answer wright here about the verb. You have to think about reading the notes before you come to class. –BEFORE is not a preposition because is not complied with by an item that it web links to the clausage. It is adhered to by one more clausage that is subordinate in interpretation to the independent clause; therefore, it is a subordinate conjunction. Alix walk dvery own the ramp to the beach. –DOWN is not an adverb bereason it alone does not answer wright here around the verb. Alix fell down. –DOWN is an adverb answering wbelow around the verb. Tbelow is no object, so it cannot be a preplace.

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The flying saucer appeared above the lake before it disappeared right into room." title="–ABOVE is not an adverb bereason it has actually an object to finish its meaning; therefore, ABOVE is a preplace and the entire expression is an adverb phrase. Crystal can hear her sister snoring throughout the room. –Objects normally answer the question what. Thus, we have the right to ask throughout what. to determine the object of the preplace. Christine discovered a pile of publications concealed under the staircase. –UNDER is not an adverb bereason it alone does not answer wbelow about the verb. You need to consider reading the notes before course. –BEFORE is not an adverb because it alone does not answer where around the verb. You have to take into consideration reading the notes prior to you pertained to course. –BEFORE is not a preposition bereason is not adhered to by a things that it web links to the clausage. It is followed by an additional clausage that is subordinate in meaning to the independent clause; therefore, it is a subordinate conjunction. Alix walk down the ramp to the beach. –DOWN is not an adverb bereason it alone does not answer wbelow around the verb. Alix dropped down. –DOWN is an adverb answering where around the verb. Tright here is no object, so it cannot be a preposition..">

4 More Prepositions and Phrases The manager with the pink slips terrorized the employees. The price of the promotion was a lot as well steep. Somepoint in the corner of the desk was relocating. She lost her head at the retro drive in. The salesperson skimmed over the product"s actual expense. The boss was thrilled at their mindset. The rock climbers arrived late at night. Ms. Werner bribed the students with candy.

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5 A Participle is a verb develop that functions as an adjective. Participles aren’t preceded by a helping verb. The sputtering automobile jerked down the road. (participle) The automobile was sputtering down the road. (verb) Present out Participles end in –ing (jumping, burning, speaking). The howling children disturbed the next-door neighbors. Fred Flintrock offered Barney Rubble a crumbling rock. Swimming gradually, I didn’t notification the shark on my tail. Past Participles normally finish in –ed, -t, or –en (jumped, burned, spoken). The frozen candy bar damaged her $900 braces. Annoyed, Ms. Werner waited for the students to be quiet. Confused by the noise, the computer mouse hid its confront.

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6 Participles,3 Use participles and participial phrases to create concise and also exciting sentences. You deserve to combine to straightforward sentences to make a much more exciting complicated sentence. 2 Sentences: Ms. Werner offered the students a pointed glare. She waited for them to be quiet. 1 Sentence: Waiting for them to be quiet, Ms. Werner offered the students a pointed glare.

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7 The participial expression contains the participle and also the object of the participle or any type of words modified by or concerned the participle. Participial phrases act as adjectivesparticipleobject of the participle The auto sliding out of manage towards the structure is going to hit the window. –SLIDING modifies the CAR. The verb is IS GOING. Cameron spotted his brvarious other throwing rocks at the passing cars. –THROWING is not a verb in this sentence. It defines the brvarious other. Without an auxiliary verb, it cannot function as a verb. The astronaut favored to ride the space shuttle to Mars is afraid of heights. –CHOSEN explains the ASTRONAUT. Running down the street, Alicia tripped and also fell. –RUNNING certainly shows somepoint the topic is doing, but the verbs for the topic are TRIPPED and FELL. Penned in by other runners, Steve was unable to make a break for the finish line. –STEVE is the topic. WAS is the verb. PENNED defines STEVE. Mark returned the damaged package to the manufacturer. –DAMAGED describes PACKAGE. Alex dropped dvery own the broken stairinstance. –BROKEN explains STAIRCASE.

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The vehicle sliding out of control towards the structure is going to hit the window. –SLIDING modifies the CAR. The verb is IS GOING. Cameron spotted his brvarious other throwing rocks at the passing cars. –THROWING is not a verb in this sentence. It describes the brother. Without an auxiliary verb, it cannot feature as a verb. The astronaut chosen to ride the space shuttle to Mars is afraid of heights. –CHOSEN defines the ASTRONAUT. Running down the street, Alicia tripped and fell. –RUNNING definitely indicates somepoint the subject is doing, yet the verbs for the topic are TRIPPED and also FELL. Penned in by various other runners, Steve was unable to make a break for the complete line. –STEVE is the subject. WAS is the verb. PENNED describes STEVE. Mark went back the damaged package to the manufacturer. –DAMAGED describes PACKAGE. Alex dropped dvery own the broken staircase. –BROKEN explains STAIRCASE..">

8 A gerund is a type of verb supplied as a noun. Gerunds always finish in –ing. Gerunds always act as nouns. Leroy increased his abilities by studying. At the age of ten, Irving started running. My mother’s favorite occupation, nagging, makes her tedious firm. The quiet, stable humming soothed him to sleep. My evening routine functions food preparation a delicious dinner. Thousands of Kurt Cobain fans proved their love for the dead rocker by buying his CD boxed set. Don’t confuse gerunds through existing participles, even though they both end via –ing. A gerund features only as a noun, while a participle features only as a modifier.

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9 The gerund expression has the gerund and also the object of the gerund or any modifiers pertained to the gerund.gerundobject of the gerund Flying above the lake at this time of night appears a little dangerous. –FLYING is the subject of the sentence. A topic is a noun. A develop of the verb ending in ING and also provided as a noun is a gerund. FLYING is a gerund. Bill chose that scrambling over the pile of debris was not safe. –SCRAMBLING is the subject of the dependent clausage. A subject is a noun. A create of the verb ending in ING and also used as a noun is a gerund. SCRAMBLING is a gerund. Ethan avoided doing his homeoccupational because the Wolfpack was playing the Royals. –DOING is the straight object of the verb AVOIDED. An object is a noun. A create of the verb ending in ING and also offered as a noun is a gerund. DOING is a gerund. HOMEWORK is the object of the gerund. The student gathered signatures for enhancing the hours of the library. –INCREASING is the object of the preposition FOR. An object is a noun. A develop of the verb ending in ING and also offered as a noun is a gerund. INCREASING is a gerund. HOURS is the object of the gerund. Philip Morris continues its fight to proccasion government from regulating tobacco; neverthemuch less, the federal government is placing limitations on marketing cigarettes to youth. –Both REGULATING and MARKETING are objects of prepositions (FROM and also ON). The young guy opposes marketing smoking cigarettes as if it were glamorous. –MARKETING is the straight object of the verb OPPOSES. SMOKING is a gerund and also the object of the gerund MARKETING. CIGARETTES is the object of the gerund SMOKING. Anattracted proceeds his crusade to proccasion the university from limiting complimentary speech. –LIMITING is the object of the preposition FROM. SPEECH is the object of the GERUND.

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Flying over the lake at this time of night seems a little dangerous." title="–FLYING is the subject of the sentence. A subject is a noun. A develop of the verb ending in ING and also provided as a noun is a gerund. FLYING is a gerund. Bill made a decision that scrambling over the pile of debris was not safe. –SCRAMBLING is the topic of the dependent clausage. A topic is a noun. A create of the verb finishing in ING and also provided as a noun is a gerund. SCRAMBLING is a gerund. Ethan avoided doing his homework because the Wolfload was playing the Royals. –DOING is the straight object of the verb AVOIDED. An object is a noun. A develop of the verb finishing in ING and also provided as a noun is a gerund. DOING is a gerund. HOMEWORK is the object of the gerund. The student gathered signatures for boosting the hours of the library. –INCREASING is the object of the preposition FOR. An object is a noun. A create of the verb ending in ING and offered as a noun is a gerund. INCREASING is a gerund. HOURS is the object of the gerund. Philip Morris proceeds its fight to prevent federal government from regulating tobacco; neverthemuch less, the government is placing constraints on marketing cigarettes to youth. –Both REGULATING and MARKETING are objects of prepositions (FROM and also ON). The young guy opposes marketing cigarette smoking cigarettes as if it were glamorous. –MARKETING is the straight object of the verb OPPOSES. SMOKING is a gerund and also the object of the gerund MARKETING. CIGARETTES is the object of the gerund SMOKING. Andrew proceeds his crusade to prevent the university from limiting cost-free speech. –LIMITING is the object of the preplace FROM. SPEECH is the object of the GERUND..">

10 -ing: What’s the difference? Present out Tense Verb (calls for a helping verb) Bob was helping Su tie her shoe. Participle The helping boy tripped on his shoe laces. Gerund He loves helping.

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11 An infinitive is a verb create that comes after the word “to” and functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb. To succeed takes courage, foresight and luck. Alone in her cubicle, all she wanted wregarding endure. Afrhelp to move, she froze in terror. His goal, to break into Fort Knox, was never before accomplished. The student’s hope was to end up the paper prior to college began. Don’t confuse infinitives via prepositional phrases that begin with “to.” Remember that a preposition constantly ends with a noun or pronoun; an infinitive constantly ends through a verb.

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12 The infinitive phrase consists of the infinitive and the object of the infinitive or any type of modifiers pertained to the infinitive.infinitiveobject of the infinitive Even in New York, fans did not regulate to buy the hype. –TO BUY is the straight object of the verb DID MANAGE. THE HYPE is the object of the infinitive. The seemingly straightforward decision to apallude a Democrat brought about debate. –TO APPOINT is an adjective editing DECISION. A DEMOCRAT is the object of the infinitive. The gap offers a method to provide Democratic candidays an edge in close elections –TO GIVE is an adjective modifying WAY. The object of the infinitive is CANDIDATES. The respondents believe their next-door neighbors are willing to vote for a womale. –TO VOTE is an adverb editing and enhancing the predicate adjective WILLING. In various other words, it tells us the degree to which they are willing. Two nonprofit institutions from oppowebsite sides of the political spectrum plan to release a report blasting 25 Military Corps of Engineers water tasks –TO RELEASE is the direct object of the verb PLAN. REPORT is the object of the infinitive. FYI: BLASTING is a participle editing REPORT. The corps has actually been trying to reactors itself in a more ecosensitive light. –TO RECAST is the straight object of the verb HAS BEEN TRYING. ITSELF ( a reflexive pronoun) is the object of the infinitive. Now Congress has to decide whether it wants to proceed to be part of the trouble, or if it desires to be component of the solution. –TO CONTINUE is the straight object of the verb WANTS. TO BE the object of the infinitive TO CONTINUE. PART is the object of the infinitive TO BE.

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Even in New York, fans did not regulate to buy the hype." title="–TO BUY is the direct object of the verb DID MANAGE. THE HYPE is the object of the infinitive. The seemingly easy decision to apsuggest a Democrat led to controversy. –TO APPOINT is an adjective editing DECISION. A DEMOCRAT is the object of the infinitive. The gap provides a means to provide Democratic candidates an edge in close elections –TO GIVE is an adjective editing WAY. The object of the infinitive is CANDIDATES. The respondents believe their neighbors are willing to vote for a woguy. –TO VOTE is an adverb editing and enhancing the predicate adjective WILLING. In various other words, it tells us the degree to which they are willing. Two nonprofit establishments from oppowebsite sides of the political spectrum arrangement to release a report blasting 25 Military Corps of Engineers water projects –TO RELEASE is the direct object of the verb PLAN. REPORT is the object of the infinitive. FYI: BLASTING is a participle editing REPORT. The corps has been trying to reactors itself in an extra ecosensitive light. –TO RECAST is the straight object of the verb HAS BEEN TRYING. ITSELF ( a reflexive pronoun) is the object of the infinitive. Now Congress has to decide whether it wants to proceed to be part of the trouble, or if it desires to be part of the solution. –TO CONTINUE is the straight object of the verb WANTS. TO BE the object of the infinitive TO CONTINUE. PART is the object of the infinitive TO BE..">

13 Appositives are nouns or pronouns that rename an additional noun or pronoun. Appositives are inserted directly after the noun or pronoun they modify. Bob’s vehicle, a wreck, passed away a grisly death by the side of the interstate. Spot, a cat, must understand my moods. She, my friend, is always late. Some appositives are necessary to the meaning of the sentence; others are not. Be certain to usage commas carefully to create meaning via necessary and also nonimportant appositives. Do you know my frifinish Bill? –Is Bill the friend or is the speaker talking to Bill? Do you know my friend, Bill?

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14 Appositives phrases are nouns or pronouns through modifiers. Appositive phrases carry out extra indevelopment and also summary to the sentence. Just like solitary appositives, appositive phrases are inserted close to the noun or pronoun they define. Columbia College, the second-largest land- owner in New York City, is part of the Ivy Organization. David Prowse, the man in the Darth Vader suit in the Star Wars movie, did not discover out that his lines were going to be called over by James Earl Jones until he witnessed the screening of the movie.

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15 Appositive: A word, phrase or clause that implies the same point as (i.e., synonym) or better describes one more noun (pronoun). Non-restrictive appositives are not vital to the meaning of the sentence. Restrictive appositives are essential to the interpretation of the sentence. 1. NON-RESTRICTIVE: Her husband, Fritz, is a nice guy. –We assume she has actually just one husband. Thus, commas are supplied. The firm made a decision Mary, vice president of public affairs, as its chief executive officer. –Because we have actually identified the perchild by name, her title is additional information. It deserve to be set off by commas. In other words, we could take it out and the interpretation would not adjust. The Grand also Canyon, among our nation"s a lot of well-known tourist attractions, is breathtaking to behost. –Since we have actually determined the place by name, the rest is additional indevelopment. It have the right to be collection off by commas. In various other words, we could take it out and also the definition would certainly not change. Neil Armsolid, the initially man that walked on the moon, is a indigenous of Ohio. –Due to the fact that we have established the perchild by name, the additional indevelopment is not limited to the sentence. It deserve to be set off by commas. In various other words, we can take it out and the definition would not readjust. 2. RESTRICTIVE: Evan"s friend John cheated on the test. –EVAN has even more than one friend; therefore, no commas are used to set off JOHN. We require the name to know which frifinish we"re talking around. We students are happy through good grades. –STUDENTS determine that WE are. If we rerelocate it, WE does not have actually the same definition. She waited patiently for the famed author Stephen King. –STEPHEN KING identifies which well known writer. There is no comma after AUTHOR because there are many kind of famed authors.

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are. If we remove it, WE does not have the same meaning. She waited patiently for the famed author Stephen King.

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–STEPHEN KING identifies which famous writer. Tbelow is no comma after AUTHOR bereason tbelow are many kind of well known authors..">